The Humanion Arkive Year Delta 2018-19
September 24: 2018-September 23:2019
The Arkives
First Published: September 24: 2015




























The Universe We Live in The Universana of This Universe

The Universe Arkive

On Hubble’s 25th Anniversary

Hubble did not go speechless on its twenty fifth
Year being in space looking out without wonder
Yet suppose you were there with a mind and a
Pair of human eyes that formulate another eye

That sees unlike Hubble all around and what is
It that you would do just looking at one nursery
Of stellar nativity where countless baby stars are
Rising out and about spreading on to find their

Own space and place to call home an endless flow
Of births and becoming rising and spreading out
What would you do but give in the highest of us

In the silence playing a symphony that no one can
Do and wonder how our entire future is coming off
The depth of the past say nothing stay speechless

Hubble in Space 24.04.90-24.04.15

:Munayem Mayenin : October 22.10.15


And Here is the Jewel of the Universe The Milky Way

Local Galactic Group: Image by Andrew Z Colvin

The Dance Taking Place in the World of Arp 299

Image: X-ray: NASA:CXC:University of Crete:K. Anastasopoulou et al, NASA:NuSTAR:GSFC:A. Ptak et al:Optical: NASA:STScI

|| July 02: 2017 || ά. What would happen if you took two galaxies and mixed them together over millions of years? A new image including data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory reveals the cosmic culinary outcome. Arp 299 is a system located about 140 million light years from Earth. It contains two galaxies that are merging, creating a partially blended mix of stars from each galaxy in the process.

However, this stellar mix is not the only ingredient. New data from Chandra reveals 25 bright X-ray sources sprinkled throughout the Arp 299 concoction. Fourteen of these sources are such strong emitters of X-rays that astronomers categorise them as 'ultra-luminous X-ray sources' or ULXs. These ULXs are found embedded in regions where stars are currently forming at a rapid rate. Most likely, the ULXs are binary systems where a neutron star or black hole is pulling matter away from a companion star, that is much more massive than the Sun.

These double star systems are called high-mass X-ray binaries. Such a loaded buffet of high-mass X-ray binaries is rare, but Arp 299 is one of the most powerful star-forming galaxies in the nearby Universe. This is due at least in part to the merger of the two galaxies, which has triggered waves of star formation. The formation of high-mass X-ray binaries is a natural consequence of such blossoming star birth as some of the young massive stars, which often form in pairs, evolve into these systems.

This new composite image of Arp 299 contains X-ray data from Chandra, pink, higher-energy X-ray data from NuSTAR, purple and optical data from the Hubble Space Telescope, white and faint brown. Arp 299, also, emits copious amounts of infrared light that has been detected by observatories such as NASA’s Spitzer Space Telescope, but those data are not included in this composite.

The infrared and X-ray emission of the galaxy is remarkably similar to that of galaxies found in the very distant Universe, offering an opportunity to study a relatively nearby analog of these distant objects. A higher rate of galaxy collisions occurred when the universe was young, but these objects are difficult to study directly because they are located at colossal distances.

The Chandra data also reveal diffuse X-ray emission from hot gas distributed throughout Arp 299. Scientists think the high rate of supernovas, another common trait of star-forming galaxies, has expelled much of this hot gas out of the center of the system.

A paper describing these results appeared in the August 21 issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and is available online. The Lead Author of the paper is Konstantina Anastasopoulou from the University of Crete in Greece. NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Centre in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra programme for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra’s science and flight operations.

: Editor: Lee Mohon: NASA: ω.

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

|| Readmore || ‽: 020717  || Up ||



Giant Wave Rolling Through the Perseus Galaxy Cluster: Perseus Spans 200,000 Light Years and This Wave is Twice the Size of Milky Way Galaxy

This X-ray image of the hot gas in the Perseus galaxy cluster was made from 16 days of Chandra observations. Researchers then filtered the data in
a way that brightened the contrast of edges in order to make subtle details more obvious. An oval highlights the location of an
enormous wave found to be rolling through the gas. Image: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Centre:Stephen Walker et al

|| May 04: 2017: Francis Reddy Writing || ά. Combining data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory with radio observations and computer simulations, an international team of scientists has discovered a vast wave of hot gas in the nearby Perseus galaxy cluster. Spanning some 200,000 light-years, the wave is about twice the size of our own Milky Way galaxy. The researchers say that the wave formed billions of years ago, after a small galaxy cluster grazed Perseus and caused its vast supply of gas to slosh around an enormous volume of space.

"Perseus is one of the most massive nearby clusters and the brightest one in X-rays, so Chandra data provide us with unparalleled detail." said the Lead Scientist Mr Stephen Walker at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Centre in Greenbelt, Maryland. "The wave we've identified is associated with the flyby of a smaller cluster, which shows that the merger activity, that produced these giant structures is still ongoing." A paper, describing the findings appears in the June 2017 issue of the journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and is available online.

Galaxy clusters are the largest structures bound by gravity in the universe today. Some 11 million light-years across and located about 240 million light-years away, the Perseus galaxy cluster is named for its host constellation. Like all galaxy clusters, most of its observable matter takes the form of a pervasive gas averaging tens of millions of degrees, so hot it only glows in X-rays.

Chandra observations have revealed a variety of structures in this gas, from vast bubbles blown by the supermassive black hole in the cluster's central galaxy, NGC 1275, to an enigmatic concave feature, known as the 'bay'.

The bay's concave shape couldn't have formed through bubbles launched by the black hole. Radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array in central New Mexico show that the bay structure produces no emission, the opposite of what scientists would expect for features associated with black hole activity. In addition, standard models of sloshing gas, typically produced structures, that arc in the wrong direction.

Mr Walker and his colleagues turned to existing Chandra observations of the Perseus cluster to further investigate the bay. They combined a total of 10.4 days of high-resolution data with 05.8 days of wide-field observations at energies between 700 and 7,000 electron volts. For comparison, visible light has energies between about two and three electron volts. The scientists then filtered the Chandra data to highlight the edges of structures and show subtle details.

Next, they compared the edge-enhanced Perseus image to computer simulations of merging galaxy clusters, developed by Mr John ZuHone, an Astrophysicist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Centre for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The simulations were run on the Pleiades supercomputer, operated by the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division at Ames Research Centre in Silicon Valley, California. Although, he was not involved in this study, Mr ZuHone collected his simulations into an online catalogue to aid astronomers studying galaxy clusters.

"Galaxy cluster mergers represent the latest stage of structure formation in the cosmos." Mr ZuHone said. "Hydrodynamic simulations of merging clusters allow us to produce features in the hot gas and tune physical parameters, such as the magnetic field. Then we can attempt to match the detailed characteristics of the structures we observe in X-rays."

One simulation seemed to explain the formation of the bay. In it, gas in a large cluster similar to Perseus, has settled into two components, a 'cold' central region with temperatures around 54 million degrees Fahrenheit, 30 million Celsius and a surrounding zone, where the gas is three times hotter. Then a small galaxy cluster containing about a thousand times the mass of the Milky Way, skirts the larger cluster, missing its centre by around 650,000 light-years.

The flyby creates a gravitational disturbance, that churns up the gas like cream stirred into coffee, creating an expanding spiral of cold gas. After about 02.5 billion years, when the gas has risen nearly 500,000 light-years from the centre, vast waves form and roll at its periphery for hundreds of millions of years before dissipating.

These waves are giant versions of Kelvin-Helmholtz waves, which show up wherever there's a velocity difference across the interface of two fluids, such as wind blowing over water. They can be found in the ocean, in cloud formations on Earth and other planets, in plasma near Earth and even on the sun.

"We think the bay feature we see in Perseus is part of a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, perhaps the largest one yet identified, that formed in much the same way as the simulation shows." Mr Walker said. "We have, also, identified similar features in two other galaxy clusters, Centaurus and Abell 1795."

The researchers, also, found that the size of the waves corresponds to the strength of the cluster's magnetic field. If it's too weak, the waves reach much larger sizes than those observed. If too strong, they don't form at all. This study allowed astronomers to probe the average magnetic field throughout the entire volume of these clusters, a measurement, that is impossible to make by any other means.

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Centre in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra's science and flight operations.

: Editor: Rob Garner: NASA: ω.

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

|| Readmore || ‽: 050517  || Up ||




The Arrhythmic Beating of a Black Hole Heart

Image: NASA

|| April 20: 2017|| ά. At the centre of the Centaurus galaxy cluster, there is a large elliptical galaxy, called, NGC 4696. Deeper still, there is a supermassive black hole, buried within the core of this galaxy. New data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has showed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. Although, the black hole itself is undetected, astronomers are learning about the impact it has on the galaxy it inhabits and the larger cluster around it.

In some ways, this black hole resembles a beating heart, that pumps blood outward into the body via the arteries. Likewise, a black hole can inject material and energy into its host galaxy and beyond. By examining the details of the X-ray data from Chandra, scientists have found evidence for repeated bursts of energetic particles in jets generated by the supermassive black hole at the center of NGC 4696. These bursts create vast cavities in the hot gas that fills the space between the galaxies in the cluster. The bursts also create shock waves, akin to sonic booms produced by high-speed airplanes, which travel tens of thousands of light years across the cluster.

This composite image contains X-ray data from Chandra, red, that reveals the hot gas in the cluster and radio data from the NSF's Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, blue, that shows high-energy particles produced by the black hole-powered jets. Visible light data from the Hubble Space Telescope, green, show galaxies in the cluster as well as galaxies and stars outside the cluster.

Astronomers employed special processing to the X-ray data to emphasize nine cavities visible in the hot gas. These cavities are labeled A through I in an additional image, and the location of the black hole is labelled with a cross. The cavities that formed most recently are located nearest to the black hole, in particular the ones labeled A and B. The researchers estimate that these black hole bursts or 'beats', have occurred every five to ten million years. Besides the vastly differing time scales, these beats, also, differ from typical human heartbeats in not occurring at particularly regular intervals.

A different type of processing of the X-ray data reveals a sequence of curved and approximately equally spaced features in the hot gas. These may be caused by sound waves generated by the black hole’s repeated bursts. In a galaxy cluster, the hot gas that fills the cluster enables sound waves, albeit at frequencies far too low for the human hear to detect, to propagate.

The features in the Centaurus Cluster are similar to the ripples seen in the Perseus cluster of galaxies. The pitch of the sound in Centaurus is extremely deep, corresponding to a discordant sound about 56 octaves below the notes near middle C. This corresponds to a slightly higher (by about one octave) pitch than the sound in Perseus. Alternative explanations for these curved features include the effects of turbulence or magnetic fields.

The black hole bursts also appear to have lifted up gas that has been enriched in elements generated in supernova explosions. The authors of the study of the Centaurus cluster created a map showing the density of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium. The brighter colors in the map show regions with the highest density of heavy elements and the darker colours show regions with a lower density of heavy elements.

Therefore, regions with the highest density of heavy elements are located to the right of the black hole. A lower density of heavy elements near the black hole is consistent with the idea that enriched gas has been lifted out of the cluster’s centre by bursting activity associated with the black hole. The energy produced by the black hole is also able to prevent the huge reservoir of hot gas from cooling. This has prevented large numbers of stars from forming in the gas.

A paper describing these results was published in the March 21 2016 issue of the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society and is available online. The first author is Jeremy Sanders from the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Garching, Germany.

NASA's Marshall Space Flight Centre in Huntsville, Alabama, manages the Chandra program for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. The Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts, controls Chandra's science and flight operations.

: Editor: Lee Mohon: NASA: ω.

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

|| Readmore  || ‽: 210417  || Up ||





The Epic of the Lifelleniverse: Where Water Oceans Out Life's Laurels

 This graphic illustrates how Cassini scientists think water interacts with rock at
the bottom of the ocean of Saturn's icy moon Enceladus, producing
hydrogen gas. Image: NASA:JPL-Caltech

|| April 13: 2017|| ά. Two veteran NASA missions are providing new details about icy, ocean-bearing moons of Jupiter and Saturn, further heightening the scientific interest of these and other ocean worlds in our solar system and beyond. The findings are presented in papers published on Thursday by researchers with NASA’s Cassini mission to Saturn and Hubble Space Telescope. In the papers, Cassini scientists announce that a form of chemical energy, that life can feed on, appears to exist on Saturn's moon Enceladus and Hubble researchers report additional evidence of plumes erupting from Jupiter's moon Europa.

“This is the closest we've come, so far, to identifying a place with some of the ingredients needed for a habitable environment.” said Mr homas Zurbuchen, Associate Administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate at Headquarters in Washington. ”These results demonstrate the interconnected nature of NASA's science missions, that are getting us closer to answering whether we are indeed alone or not.” The paper from researchers with the Cassini mission, published in the journal Science, indicates hydrogen gas, which could potentially provide a chemical energy source for life, is pouring into the subsurface ocean of Enceladus from hydrothermal activity on the seafloor.

The presence of ample hydrogen in the moon's ocean means that microbes, if any exists there, could use it to obtain energy by combining the hydrogen with carbon dioxide dissolved in the water. This chemical reaction, known as 'methanogenesis' because it produces methane as a byproduct, is at the root of the tree of life on Earth and could even have been critical to the origin of life on our planet.

Life as we know it requires three primary ingredients: liquid water; a source of energy for metabolism and the right chemical ingredients, primarily carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur. With this finding, Cassini has shown that Enceladus, a small, icy moon a billion miles farther from the sun than Earth, has nearly all of these ingredients for habitability. Cassini has not yet shown phosphorus and sulfur are present in the ocean but scientists suspect them to be, since the rocky core of Enceladus is thought to be chemically similar to meteorites, that contain the two elements.

"Confirmation that the chemical energy for life exists within the ocean of a small moon of Saturn is an important milestone in our search for habitable worlds beyond Earth." said Ms Linda Spilker, Cassini Project Scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory:JPL in Pasadena, California.

The Cassini spacecraft detected the hydrogen in the plume of gas and icy material spraying from Enceladus during its last, and deepest, dive through the plume on October 28, 2015. Cassini, also, sampled the plume's composition during flybys earlier in the mission. From these observations scientists have determined that nearly 98 percent of the gas in the plume is water, about one percent is hydrogen and the rest is a mixture of other molecules including carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia.

The measurement was made using Cassini's Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer:INMS instrument, which sniffs gases to determine their composition. INMS was designed to sample the upper atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. After Cassini's surprising discovery of a towering plume of icy spray in 2005, emanating from hot cracks near the south pole, scientists turned its detectors toward the small moon.

Cassini wasn't designed to detect signs of life in the Enceladus plume, indeed, scientists didn't know the plume existed until after the spacecraft arrived at Saturn. "Although we can't detect life, we've found that there's a food source there for it. It would be like a candy store for microbes," said Hunter Waite, lead author of the Cassini study.

The new findings are an independent line of evidence that hydrothermal activity is taking place in the Enceladus ocean. Previous results, published in March 2015, suggested hot water is interacting with rock beneath the sea; the new findings support that conclusion and add that the rock appears to be reacting chemically to produce the hydrogen.

The paper detailing new Hubble Space Telescope findings, published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, reports on observations of Europa from 2016 in which a probable plume of material was seen erupting from the moon’s surface at the same location where Hubble saw evidence of a plume in 2014. These images bolster evidence that the Europa plumes could be a real phenomenon, flaring up intermittently in the same region on the moon's surface.

The newly imaged plume rises about 62 miles, 100 kilometres, above Europa’s surface, while the one observed in 2014 was estimated to be about 30 miles, 50 kilometres, high. Both correspond to the location of an unusually warm region that contains features that appear to be cracks in the moon’s icy crust, seen in the late 1990s by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. Researchers speculate that, like Enceladus, this could be evidence of water erupting from the moon’s interior.

“The plumes on Enceladus are associated with hotter regions, so after Hubble imaged this new plume-like feature on Europa, we looked at that location on the Galileo thermal map. We discovered that Europa’s plume candidate is sitting right on the thermal anomaly." said Mr William Sparks of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. Sparks led the Hubble plume studies in both 2014 and 2016.

The researchers say if the plumes and the warm spot are linked, it could mean water being vented from beneath the moon's icy crust is warming the surrounding surface. Another idea is that water ejected by the plume falls onto the surface as a fine mist, changing the structure of the surface grains and allowing them to retain heat longer than the surrounding landscape.

For both the 2014 and 2016 observations, the team used Hubble's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph:STIS to spot the plumes in ultraviolet light. As Europa passes in front of Jupiter, any atmospheric features around the edge of the moon block some of Jupiter’s light, allowing STIS to see the features in silhouette. Sparks and his team are continuing to use Hubble to monitor Europa for additional examples of plume candidates and hope to determine the frequency with which they appear.

NASA's future exploration of ocean worlds is enabled by Hubble's monitoring of Europa's putative plume activity and Cassini's long-term investigation of the Enceladus plume. In particular, both investigations are laying the groundwork for NASA's Europa Clipper mission, which is planned for launch in the 2020s. “If there are plumes on Europa, as we now strongly suspect, with the Europa Clipper we will be ready for them.” said Mr Jim Green, Director of Planetary Science, at NASA Headquarters.

Hubble's identification of a site which appears to have persistent, intermittent plume activity provides a tempting target for the Europa mission to investigate with its powerful suite of science instruments. In addition, some of Sparks' co-authors on the Hubble Europa studies are preparing a powerful ultraviolet camera to fly on Europa Clipper that will make similar measurements to Hubble's, but from thousands of times closer. And several members of the Cassini INMS team are developing an exquisitely sensitive, next-generation version of their instrument for flight on Europa Clipper.

For more information on ocean worlds in our solar system and beyond, visit.

Felicia Chou: Headquarters, Washington: 202-358-0257: felicia.chou at
Preston Dyches: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif: 818-354-7013: preston.dyches at
Donna Weaver:Ray Villard: Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore: 410-338-4493:410-338-4514: dweaver at at

: Editor: Karen Northon: NASA: ω.

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

|| Readmore  || ‽: 140417  || Up ||





The International Day of Human Space Flight: Reaching for the One Universe to Find Home on One Earth for One Humanity for All We Venture Out to is at Home in the One Humanity-Soul That We Must Seek, Find and Be


|| April 12: 2017|| ά. The United Nations today commemorated the International Day of Human Space Flight to celebrate the 56th anniversary of the first human space flight, which ushered in the beginning of the space era for the humanion. “The International Day is an opportunity for us to recognize how much humanity has achieved thanks to international cooperation in space and the benefits space technology and applications has brought us for making the world a better place.” said the UN Champion for Space, Mr Scott Kelly in a message on the occasion.

The International Day commemorates the historic space flight that Yuri Gagarin, a Soviet citizen, took on April 12, 1961 and which opened the way for space exploration for the benefit of all of Earth’s inhabitants. During his year in space astronaut Mr Kelly and NASA partnered with the UN Office for Outer Space Affairs on the Why Space Matters campaign to draw attention to the importance of space-based science technology and their applications for sustainable development.

In 2011, the UN General Assembly declared April 12 as the International Day of Human Space Flight 'to celebrate each year at the international level the beginning of the space era for mankind, reaffirming the important contribution of space science and technology in achieving sustainable development goals and increasing the well-being of States and peoples, as well as ensuring the realization of their aspiration to maintain outer space for peaceful purpose'.

The Assembly expressed its deep conviction of the common interest of humankind in promoting and expanding the exploration and use of outer space, as the province of all mankind, for peaceful purposes and in continuing efforts to extend to all States the benefits derived there from. ω.

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

|| Readmore   || ‽: 130417  || Up ||






Astronomers Show the Role of the Cosmic Web Across the Cosmic Time: The Humanion Invites Each Single Human Being  on This Earth to Look for, Find and Show Her:His Country  in This Microcosm of an Image of 40,000 Galaxies: You Cannot Even Locate the Milky Way Galaxy Here, Let Alone Finding the Earth and Where are Our Countries in This Image That We All Want to Put Up All the Possible and Impossible Walls

Simulations of the cosmic web showing the filaments connecting structures. Credit: Illustris Simulation

|| March 15: 2017: Lancaster University News || ά.  Astronomers have sampled 40,000 distant galaxies to better understand how galaxies like our own Milky Way have formed and evolved across cosmic time. Dr David Sobral, from Lancaster University, is a member of an international team, led by a joint collaboration between the California Institute of Technology:Caltech and the University of California, Riverside.

The team looked at the COSMOS field, where CR7 was also discovered, a large patch of sky with deep enough data to look at galaxies very far away and with accurate distance measurements to individual galaxies. Dr Sobral said, "We have studied over 40 thousand galaxies and catalogued the cosmic web in large scales into its main components within the COSMOS field: clusters, filaments and sparse regions devoid of any object.

It’s remarkable how state-of-the-art data and methods now allow us to extend our analysis into a much younger universe and probe such structures up to eight billion years back in time.”

The galaxies were then divided into those, that are central to their local environment, the centre of gravity and those, that roam around in their host environments, satellites.

The scaffolding, that holds the large-scale structure of the universe, constitutes galaxies, dark matter and gas, from which stars are forming, organised in complex networks, known as, the cosmic web.

This network comprises dense regions, known as, galaxy clusters and groups, that are woven together through thread-like structures, known as filaments. These filaments, form the backbone of the cosmic web and host a large fraction of the mass in the universe, as well as sites of star formation activity.

While there is ample evidence that environments shape and direct the evolution of galaxies, it is not clear how galaxies behave in the larger, global cosmic web and in particular, in the more extended environment of filaments.

Behnam Darvish a postdoctoral scholar at Caltech, who is the Lead Author on the paper, said, “What makes this study unique is the observation of thousands of galaxies in different filaments, spanning a significant fraction of the age of the Universe”.

Other authors include Nick Scoville and Shoubaneh Hemmati of Caltech, Andra Stroe of the European Southern Observatory, and Jeyhan Kartaltepe of the Rochester Institute of Technology. The research in the Astrophysical Journal was funded by NASA. ω.

Whatever Your Field of Work and Wherever in the World You are, Please, Make a Choice to Do All You Can to Seek and Demand the End of Death Penalty For It is Your Business What is Done in Your Name. The Law That Makes Humans Take Part in Taking Human Lives and That Permits and Kills Human Lives is No Law. It is the Rule of the Jungle Where Law Does Not Exist. The Humanion

|| Readmore   || ‽: 160317  || Up ||






And the Way to Dusty Death: The Colourful Demise of a Sun-Like Star

Image: NASA, ESA, and K. Noll:STScI, Acknowledgment: The Hubble Heritage Team:STScI:AURA

|| September 24: 2016: Year Beta: Day One || ά. This image, taken by the NASA:ESA Hubble Space Telescope, shows the colourful "last hurrah" of a star like our sun. The star is ending its life by casting off its outer layers of gas, which formed a cocoon around the star's remaining core. Ultraviolet light from the dying star makes the material glow. The burned-out star, called a white dwarf, is the white dot in the centre. Our sun will eventually burn out and shroud itself with stellar debris, but not for another five billion years.

Our Milky Way Galaxy is littered with these stellar relics, called planetary nebulae. The objects have nothing to do with planets. Eighteenth and nineteenth-century astronomers called them the name because through small telescopes they resembled the disks of the distant planets Uranus and Neptune. The planetary nebula in this image is called NGC 2440. The white dwarf at the centre of NGC 2440 is one of the hottest known, with a surface temperature of more than 360,000 degrees Fahrenheit, 200,000 degrees Celsius.

The nebula's chaotic structure suggests that the star shed its mass episodically. During each outburst, the star expelled material in a different direction. This can be seen in the two bowtie-shaped lobes. The nebula also is rich in clouds of dust, some of which form long, dark streaks pointing away from the star. NGC 2440 lies about 4,000 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Puppis.

The material expelled by the star glows with different colours depending on its composition, its density and how close it is to the hot central star. Blue samples helium; blue-green oxygen, and red nitrogen and hydrogen.

:Editor: Karl Hille:NASA:

|| Readmore  || ‽: 240916 || Up  ||




The Universe-Pearl Off the Oyster Nebula in NGC 1501

Image: ESA:Hubble & NASA; acknowledgement: M. Canale

|| September 07: 2016|| ά. The world is your oyster, as the expression goes, and the NASA:ESA Hubble Space Telescope, with its advanced instruments and favourable location in orbit above Earth’s atmosphere, has far more of the Universe to explore than most.

This image was captured using Hubble’s Wide Field Planetary Camera Two, the camera responsible for many of the telescope’s most beautiful images. It shows the appropriately nicknamed Oyster Nebula, more formally known as NGC 1501, a candescent cloud some 5000 light-years away from Earth in the constellation of Camelopardalis.

The Oyster Nebula is a type of cosmic object that is essentially a giant cloud of dust and electrically charged gases. Nebulas are often made to glow, as seen here, by the radiation from a nearby star. In the case of the Oyster Nebula, that star can be seen as a yellow–orange dot at the centre of the turquoise cloud, resembling the oyster’s precious pearl.

This is a planetary nebula, meaning that it was created when its progenitor star, the ‘pearl’, threw its outer layers of gas into space. This star is just as notable as the beautiful structure surrounding it. It is a pulsating star, meaning that its brightness varies regularly and periodically. In the case of NGC 1501’s progenitor star, this is incredibly fast, with the star’s brightness changing significantly in just half an hour.

The complexity of the Oyster Nebula’s internal structure is clearly evident in this detailed image, appearing almost webbed or bubbly. Astronomers have modelled this object in 3D and found it to be an irregularly shaped cloud filled with lumpy and bumpy structures, such as knots and bubbles of gas and clumps of dust, all knitted together.

These visible-light observations capture the glow of gases including hydrogen and nitrogen. The bright colours shown here are arbitrary. A version of this image was entered into the 2012 Hubble’s Hidden Treasures image processing competition by contestant Marc Canale.

|| Readmore  || ‽: 080916 || Up  ||



The First Generation of Stars of the Universe Formed Even Later Than Previously Thought

Image: ESA:C. Carreau

|| September 01: 2016|| ά. ESA's Planck satellite has revealed that the first stars in the Universe started forming later than previous observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background indicated. This new analysis also shows that these stars were the only sources needed to account for reionising atoms in the cosmos, having completed half of this process when the Universe had reached an age of 700 million years.

With the multitude of stars and galaxies that populate the present Universe, it's hard to imagine how different our 13.8 billion year cosmos was when it was only a few seconds old. At that early phase, it was a hot, dense primordial soup of particles, mostly electrons, protons, neutrinos, and photons, the particles of light.

In such a dense environment the Universe appeared like an 'opaque' fog, as light particles could not travel any significant distance before colliding with electrons. As the cosmos expanded, the Universe grew cooler and more rarefied and, after about 380, 000 years, finally became 'transparent'. By then, particle collisions were extremely sporadic and photons could travel freely across the cosmos.

Today, telescopes like Planck can observe this fossil light across the entire sky as the Cosmic Microwave Background, or CMB. Its distribution on the sky reveals tiny fluctuations that contain a wealth of information about the history, composition and geometry of the Universe. The release of the CMB happened at the time when electrons and protons joined to form hydrogen atoms. This is the first moment in the history of the cosmos when matter was in an electrically neutral state.

After that, a few hundred million years passed before these atoms could assemble and eventually give rise to the Universe's first generation of stars. As these first stars came to life, they filled their surroundings with light, which subsequently split neutral atoms apart, turning them back into their constituent particles: electrons and protons. Scientists refer to this as the 'epoch of reionisation'. It did not take long for most material in the Universe to become completely ionised, and – except in a very few, isolated places – it has been like that ever since.

Observations of very distant galaxies hosting supermassive black holes indicate that the Universe had been completely reionised by the time it was about 900 million years old. The starting point of this process, however, is much harder to determine and has been a hotly debated topic in recent years. "The CMB can tell us when the epoch of reionisation started and, in turn, when the first stars formed in the Universe," explains Jan Tauber, Planck project scientist at ESA.

To make this measurement, scientists exploit the fact that a fraction of the CMB is polarised: part of the light vibrates in a preferred direction. This results from CMB photons bouncing off electrons – something that happened very frequently in the primordial soup, before the CMB was released, and then again later, after reionisation, when light from the first stars brought free electrons back onto the cosmic stage.

"It is in the tiny fluctuations of the CMB polarisation that we can see the influence of the reionisation process and deduce when it began," adds Tauber. A first estimate of the epoch of reionisation came in 2003 from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), suggesting that this process might have started early in cosmic history, when the Universe was only a couple of hundred million years old. This result was problematic, because there is no evidence that any stars had formed by then, which would mean postulating the existence of other, exotic sources that could have caused the reionisation at that time.

This first estimate was soon to be corrected, as subsequent data from WMAP pushed the starting time to later epochs, indicating that the Universe had not been significantly reionised until at least some 450 million years into its history. This eased, but did not completely solve the puzzle: although the earliest of the first stars have been observed to be present already when the Universe was 300 to 400 million years old, it remained unclear whether these stars were the main culprits for reionising fully the cosmos or whether additional, more exotic sources must have played a role too.

In 2015, the Planck Collaboration provided new data to tackle the problem, moving the reionisation epoch even later in cosmic history and revealing that this process was about half-way through when the Universe was around 550 million years old. The result was based on Planck's first all-sky maps of the CMB polarisation, obtained with its Low-Frequency Instrument:LFI.

Now, a new analysis of data from Planck's other detector, the High-Frequency Instrument:HFI, which is more sensitive to this phenomenon than any other so far, shows that reionisation started even later – much later than any previous data have suggested. "The highly sensitive measurements from HFI have clearly demonstrated that reionisation was a very quick process, starting fairly late in cosmic history and having half-reionised the Universe by the time it was about 700 million years old," says Jean-Loup Puget from Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay, France, principal investigator of Planck's HFI.

"These results are now helping us to model the beginning of the reionisation phase. We have also confirmed that no other agents are needed, besides the first stars, to reionise the Universe," adds Matthieu Tristram, a Planck Collaboration scientist at Laboratoire de l'Accélérateur Linéaire in Orsay, France. The new study locates the formation of the first stars much later than previously thought on the cosmic timeline, suggesting that the first generation of galaxies are well within the observational reach of future astronomical facilities, and possibly even some current ones.

In fact, it is likely that some of the very first galaxies have already been detected with long exposures, such as the Hubble Ultra Deep Field observed with the NASA:ESA Hubble Space Telescope, and it will be easier than expected to catch many more with future observatories such as the NASA:ESA:CSA James Webb Space Telescope.

'Planck intermediate results. XLVII. Planck constraints on reionization history' and 'Planck intermediate results. XLVI. Reduction of large-scale systematic effects in HFI polarization maps and estimation of the reionization optical depth' by the Planck Collaboration are published in Astronomy and Astrophysics.

About Planck: Launched in 2009, Planck was designed to map the sky in nine frequencies using two state-of-the-art instruments: the Low Frequency Instrument:LFI, which includes three frequency bands in the range 30-70 GHz, and the High Frequency Instrument:HFI, which includes six frequency bands in the range 100-857 GHz. HFI completed its survey in January 2012, while LFI continued to make science observations until October 03, 2013, before being switched off on October 19, 2013. Seven of Planck's nine frequency channels were equipped with polarisation-sensitive detectors.

The Planck Scientific Collaboration consists of all the scientists who have contributed to the development of the mission, and who participate in the scientific exploitation of the data during the proprietary period. These scientists are members of one or more of four consortia: the LFI Consortium, the HFI Consortium, the DK-Planck Consortium, and ESA's Planck Science Office. The two European-led Planck Data Processing Centres are located in Paris, France and Trieste, Italy.

The LFI consortium is led by N. Mandolesi, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Italy, deputy PI: M. Bersanelli, Università degli Studi di Milano, Italy, and was responsible for the development and operation of LFI. The HFI consortium is led by J.L. Puget, Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale in Orsay:CNRS:Université Paris-Sud, France:deputy PI: F. Bouchet, Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris:CNRS:UPMC, France, and was responsible for the development and operation of HFI. ω.

|| Readmore || ‽: 020916 || Up  ||



I Burn at 25 000ºC: You Should Be Glad That I'm 15,000 Light Years' Away: Hen 02--247

Image: ESA:Hubble & NASA Acknowledgement: J. Schmidt:

|| August 21: 2016|| ά. This dramatic burst of colour shows a cosmic object with an equally dramatic history. Enveloped within striking, billowing clouds of gas and dust that form a nebula known as M01-67, sits a bright star named Hen 02-427, otherwise known as WR 124.

This star is just as intense as the scene unfolding around it. It is a Wolf-Rayet star, a rare type of star known to have very high surface temperatures, well over 25 000ºC, next to the Sun’s comparatively cool 5500ºC, and enormous mass, which ranges over 05–20 times our Sun’s. Such stars are constantly losing vast amounts of mass via thick winds that continuously pour from their surfaces out into space.

Hen 02-427 is responsible for creating the entire scene shown here, which has been captured in beautiful detail by the NASA:ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The star, thought to be a massive one in the later stages of its evolution, blasted the material comprising M1-67 out into space some 10 millennia ago, perhaps in multiple outbursts, to form an expanding ring of ejecta.

Since then, the star has continued to flood the nebula with massive clumps of gas and intense ionising radiation via its fierce stellar winds, shaping and sculpting its evolution. M01-67 is roughly ring-shaped but lacks a clear structure, it is essentially a collection of large, massive, superheated knots of gas all clustered around a central star.

Hen 02-427 and M1-67 lie 15,000 light-years away in the constellation of Sagitta, The Arrow. This image uses visible-light data gathered by Hubble’s Wide Field Planetary Camera 02, and was released in 2015, the same data were previously processed and released in 1998. ω.

|| Readmore  || ‽: 220816 || Up  ||


Behold: The Crab Nebula



|| July 07: 2016|| ά. This new NASA:ESA Hubble Space Telescope image reveals the beating heart of one of the most visually appealing, and most studied, supernova remnants known, the Crab Nebula. At the centre of this nebula the spinning core of a deceased star breathes life into the gas that surrounds it. The Crab Nebula, which lies 6500 light-years away in the constellation of Taurus or The Bull, is the result of a supernova, a colossal explosion that was the dying act of a massive star. During this explosion most of the material that made up the star was blown into space at immense speeds, forming an expanding cloud of gas known as a supernova remnant.

This extraordinary view of the nebula is one that has never been seen before. Unlike many popular images of this well-known object, which highlight the spectacular filaments in the outer regions, this image shows just the inner part of the nebula and combines three separate high-resolution images, each represented in a different colour, taken around ten years apart. At the very centre of the Crab Nebula lies what remains of the innermost core of the original star, now a strange and exotic object known as a neutron star. Made entirely of subatomic particles called neutrons, a neutron star has about the same mass as the Sun, but compressed into a sphere only a few tens of kilometres across.

A typical neutron star spins incredibly fast and the one at the centre of the Crab Nebula is no exception, rotating approximately 30 times per second.

The region around a neutron star is a showcase for extreme physical processes and considerable violence. The rapid motion of the material nearest to the star is revealed by the subtle rainbow of colours in this time-lapse image, the rainbow effect being due to the movement of material over the time between one image and another.

Hubble’s sharp eye also captures the intricate details of the ionised gas, shown in red in this image, that forms a swirling medley of cavities and filaments. Inside this shell of ionised gas a ghostly blue glow surrounds the spinning neutron star. This glow is radiation given off by electrons spiralling in the powerful magnetic field around the star at nearly the speed of light:1:.

The supernova explosion from which the Crab Nebula was born was one of the first to be recorded in human history:2:. This has made the Crab Nebula an invaluable object for the study of supernova remnants and has enabled astronomers to probe the lives and deaths of stars as never before.


:1: The star’s intense magnetic field is channelling infalling gas and dust to the star’s poles where it is ejected at immense speeds. Two symmetric jets of material are beamed out from the poles, sweeping out into space as the star rotates. Rather like a lighthouse beam, the jets periodically point towards Earth and present astronomers with a blinking — or pulsing — source of light in the sky. Accordingly, these objects are known as pulsars.

:2: The story began in the year 1054 CE, when a new star became visible in the night sky. The new star was the brightest object in the night sky, second only to the Moon. At the time, Chinese and Japanese astronomers recorded the event, and monitored the new star as it gradually faded in brightness until, after several years, it became invisible to the naked eye.


‽: 080716



Trace of Itokawa's Four Billion Years of History Found on Particles

Image: JAXA

|| June 27: 2016|| ά. A research team led by Aerospace Project Research Associate Toru Matsumoto of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency:JAXA: found that traces of more than four billion years of history up until now of the Asteroid "Itokawa" were recoded on the surface of particles that were recovered from Itokawa by the Asteroid Explorer "Hayabusa" to bring back to the Earth, and their surface patterns and marks were analysed by the research team.

The particles analysed this time were just over 10 micrometers in size, and their surface patterns and marks were merely in nanometers:one millionth of one micrometer. The research team observed the faint structure of the particle surface in details through X-ray microtomography:X-ray CT: and by scanning electron microscopes. As a result, the surface pattern that had been believed to be just one type was found to be at least four variations.

One of them was found to stem from Itokawa's parent body. Asteroid Itokawa was not in its current shape from the beginning. When it was born over four billion years ago, it was a parent body about 40 times bigger than current Itokawawa. The parent body was destroyed in fragments once, and it is believed that those fragments were assembled again to form Itokawa because some particles analyzed this time retain the pattern that was thought to be made over four billion years ago.

In addition to the above, we also found some patterns that were formed due to long-time exposure to solar wind or caused by friction between particles. Those patterns are shaped in a time scale of one million to thousand years. In other words, we can track the asteroid history by observing the particle surface.

The research method this time can acquire a lot of information without hurting the precious particles. Therefore, this method will become an imperative first-step analysis skill when studying extraterrestrial objects.


Publication: Magazine: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta:dated August 15, 2016:
Thesis title: Nanomorphology of Itokawa regolith particles: Application to space-weathering processes affecting the Itokawa asteroid
Authors: Toru Matsumoto, Akira Tsuchiyama, Kentaro Uesugi, Tsukasa Nakano, Masayuki Uesugi, Junya Matsuno, Takashi Nagano, Akira Shimada, Akihisa Takeuchi, Yoshio Suzuki, Tomoki Nakamura, Michihiko Nakamura, Arnold Gucsik, Keita Nagaki, Tatsuhiro Sakaiya, Tadashi Kondo: DOI No.: 10.1016/j.gca.2016.05.011:


‽: 280616


There's a Spider in the Loop

Released 20.06.2016 1:36 pm: Image: ESA and the Planck Collaboration

|| June 25: 2016|| ά.  This multicoloured swirl of yellow and blue shows a prominent ring of gas near the North Celestial Pole. The pole appears to be fixed in place, while the rest of the night sky slowly circles around it because of Earth’s rotation. This image comes courtesy of ESA’s Planck satellite, which spent years mapping the entire sky in exquisite detail between 2009 and 2013.

The North Celestial Loop lies over 325 light-years away from us towards the constellation of Ursa Major (The Great Bear). It is composed of dust and neutral hydrogen blown and sculpted into an expanding shell. This can happen in a number of ways: when a dying star explodes as a supernova, by the strong winds streaming into space from nearby stars, or even when fast-moving clouds near the edges of the Milky Way fall inwards and shunt material towards the centre of our Galaxy.

Rather than being a neat, distinct loop, this disorderly feature comprises numerous filaments that knit together, forming small clouds that are connected via coarse arches of material. One such cloud – dubbed a cirrus cloud because it reminds us of the thin, wispy cirrus clouds familiar on Earth – can be seen sitting at the centre of the frame, with tendrils extending from a central point. This feature has been nicknamed ‘the Spider’.

The Loop is expanding and pushing through its surroundings at 15–20 km/s. It contains a mass of neutral hydrogen roughly equivalent to the mass of 1500 Suns. Recent studies of its expansion have puzzled astronomers. They expect neutral hydrogen loops to expand in a spherical manner, but this loop appears instead to be expanding in a cylindrical manner, with the cylinder pointing almost directly towards us, hence its ring-like appearance.

This image is not a traditional view of the Loop; it has a pattern reminiscent of the relief lines of a map spread across the frame, resembling small eddies of swirling water in a stream. These lines represent the orientation of the Milky Way’s magnetic field, while the colours indicate the strength of emission from cosmic dust at each location. Dust grains in and around the Milky Way align themselves along the field lines emanating from our Galaxy into space, and thus their emission is also aligned. This polarised dust emission was detected by the Planck satellite.

The emission from dust is computed from a combination of Planck observations at 353, 545 and 857 GHz, whereas the direction of the magnetic field is based on Planck polarisation data at 353 GHz.v. ω.


‽: 260616



How About a New Born Star?

Released 30/05/2016 3:34 pm: Copyright ESA:Hubble & NASA Acknowledgements: R. Sahai:Jet Propulsion Laboratory, S. Meunier

|| May 30: 2016|| ά.  This young star is breaking out. Like a hatchling pecking through its shell, this particular stellar newborn is forcing its way out into the surrounding Universe.

The golden veil of light cloaks a young stellar object known only as IRAS 14568-6304. It is ejecting gas at supersonic speeds and eventually will have cleared a hole in the cloud, allowing it to be easily visible to the outside Universe.

Stars are born deep in dense clouds of dust and gas. This particular cloud is known as the Circinus molecular cloud complex. It is 2280 light-years away and stretches across 180 light-years of space. If our eyes could register the faint infrared glow of the gas in the cloud, it would stretch across our sky more than 70 times the size of the full Moon. It contains enough gas to make 250 000 stars like the Sun.

IRAS 14568-6304 was discovered with the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, launched in 1983 as a joint project of the US, the UK and the Netherlands to make the first all-sky infrared survey from space.

This particular image was taken by the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. It is a combination of just two wavelengths: optical light (blue) and infrared (golden orange). The dark swath running across the image is the Circinus molecular cloud, which is so dense that it obscures the stars beyond.

At longer infrared wavelengths, this darkness is filled with point-like stars, all deeply embedded and which will one day break out like IRAS 14568-6304 is doing.

Indeed, IRAS 14568-6304 is just one member of a nest of young stellar objects in this part of Circinus, each of which is producing jets. Put together, they make up one of the brightest, most massive and most energetic outflows that astronomers have yet observed. In years to come, they will be a beautiful, brightly visible star cloud. ω.


‽: 310516



And the Magnetic Reconnection

|| May 15: 2016|| ά.  ''Like sending sensors up into a hurricane, NASA has flown four spacecraft through an invisible maelstrom in space, called magnetic reconnection. Magnetic reconnection is one of the prime drivers of space radiation and so it is a key factor in the quest to learn more about our space environment and protect our spacecraft and astronauts as we explore farther and farther from our home planet.

Space is a better vacuum than any we can create on Earth, but it does contain some particles — and it's bustling with activity. It overflows with energy and a complex system of magnetic fields. Sometimes, when two sets of magnetic fields connect, an explosive reaction occurs: As the magnetic fields re-align and snap into a new formation they send particles zooming off in jets.''  Magnetic Reconnection

And here are some images from an inforgraphics on Magnetic Reconnection.

The Auroras

Solar Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections

At the Heliopause

And, please, study more, read more, ask more, think more, wonder more and find more. ω.


‽: 160516


The Earth and the Moon on the Window of the Universe 

 Image: NASA


‽: 090516



Universana, Let's Make Some New Words: Thearth for the Other Earth, Maarth: Mearth for the Earth That Awaits Humanity on Mars and Universana When Referring the Universe as the World/Earth as Home

Whitney Clavin Writing

This illustration shows the prototype starshade, a giant structure designed to block the glare of stars so that future space telescopes can take pictures of planets.
Credits: NASA/JPL-Caltech

|| April 29: 2016 ||  Scientists are getting closer to finding worlds that resemble our own "blue marble" of a planet. NASA's Kepler mission alone has confirmed more than 1,000 planets outside our solar system -- a handful of which are a bit bigger than Earth and orbit in the habitable zones of their stars, where liquid water might exist. Some astronomers think the discovery of Earth's true analogs may be around the corner. What are the next steps to search for life on these potentially habitable worlds?

Scientists and engineers are actively working on two technologies to help with this challenge: the starshade, a giant flower-shaped spacecraft; and coronagraphs, single instruments that fit inside telescopes. Both a starshade and a coronagraph block the light of a star, making it easier for telescopes to pick up the dim light that reflects off planets. This would enable astronomers to take pictures of Earth-like worlds -- and then use other instruments called spectrometers to search the planets' atmospheres for chemical clues about whether life might exist there.

A new JPL "Crazy Engineering" video visits both technologies at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California:

"Coronagraphs are like visors in your car -- you use them to block the light of the sun so you can see the road," said Nick Siegler, the program chief technologist for NASA's Exoplanet Exploration Program Office at JPL. "Starshades, on the other hand, are separate spacecraft that fly in front of other telescopes, so they are more like driving behind a big truck in front of you to block the light of the sun." Siegler is featured in the Crazy Engineering video.

The starshade would be a large structure about the size of a baseball diamond that deploys in space and flies in front of a space telescope. To view an animation of the starshade unfurling in space, and footage of a prototype at Northrop Grumman's Astro Aerospace in Carpinteria, California, visit:

Coronagraphs, which use tiny masks to block the light of stars from within a telescope, are also currently in development at JPL, as part of NASA's Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, or WFIRST, mission, led by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. A feature story describing how these structures might help glean signs of life on other planets is online at

Whitney Clavin: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California: 818-354-4673:

( Editor: Tony Greicius: NASA)


‽: 300416



The Bubble Nebula's Spectacular Exposition as If the Universe Has Concentrated on This Spot of the Wilderness of Space
















Image credit: NASA, ESA, Hubble Heritage Team


|| April 22: 2016 || 26 years ago, on April 24 Hubble was launched and today Hubble has delivered a magnanimous exposition of a nano-dot of space in the Universe, in celebration of its 'birth', the Bubble Nebula and yet we publish this image on Mother Earth Day so that we can see the Mother Earth who is an incy-bincy-weensy-super-nano-dot in the infinity of the Universe and yet how magnanimous this Universe is and on it how spectacular this Mother Earth is. The Humanion wishes and invites all of us to look at this and decide that each and every single soul of us that together constitute this astonishing humanion of us that lives on this Mother Earth will follow the promise that we have made in Paris at COP21: we shall seek to live sustainably. Let us live as beautifully as the Mother Earth, as the Universe and there is no other more beautiful way of being and living than living green and sustainably; creating and investing in infrastructures that are green that offer us wings to take sustainable living further. The Humanion on Mother Earth Day 2016: April 22

|| April 22: 2016 || This new NASA:ESA Hubble Space Telescope image, released to celebrate Hubble’s 26th year in orbit, captures in stunning clarity what looks like a gigantic cosmic soap bubble. The object, known as the Bubble Nebula, is in fact a cloud of gas and dust illuminated by the brilliant star within it. The vivid new portrait of this dramatic scene wins the Bubble Nebula a place in the exclusive Hubble hall of fame, following an impressive lineage of Hubble anniversary images.

Twenty six years ago, on 24 April 1990, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope was launched into orbit aboard the space shuttle Discovery as the first space telescope of its kind. Every year, to commemorate this momentous day in space history, Hubble spends a modest portion of its observing time capturing a spectacular view of a specially chosen astronomical object.

This year’s anniversary object is the Bubble Nebula, also known as NGC 7635, which lies 8 000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia. This object was first discovered by William Herschel in 1787 and this is not the first time it has caught Hubble’s eye. However, due to its very large size on the sky, previous Hubble images have only shown small sections of the nebula, providing a much less spectacular overall effect. Now, a mosaic of four images from Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) allows us to see the whole object in one picture for the first time.

This complete view of the Bubble Nebula allows us to fully appreciate the almost perfectly symmetrical shell which gives the nebula its name. This shell is the result of a powerful flow of gas — known as a stellar wind — from the bright star visible just to the left of centre in this image. The star, SAO 20575, is between ten and twenty times the mass of the Sun and the pressure created by its stellar wind forces the surrounding interstellar material outwards into this bubble-like form.

The giant molecular cloud that surrounds the star — glowing in the star’s intense ultraviolet radiation — tries to stop the expansion of the bubble. However, although the sphere already measures around ten light-years in diameter, it is still growing, owing to the constant pressure of the stellar wind — currently at more than 100 000 kilometres per hour!

Aside from the symmetry of the bubble itself, one of the more striking features is that the star is not located at the centre. Astronomers are still discussing why this is the case and how the perfectly round bubble is created nonetheless.

The star causing the spectacular colourful bubble is also notable for something less obvious. It is surrounded by a complex system of cometary knots, which can be seen most clearly in this image just to the right of the star. The individual knots, which are generally larger in size than the Solar System and have masses comparable to Earth’s, consist of crescent shaped globules of dust with large trailing tails illuminated and ionised by the star. Observations of these knots, and of the nebula as a whole, help astronomers to better understand the geometry and dynamics of these very complicated systems.

As always, and twenty six years on, Hubble gives us much more than a pretty picture.

The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international co-operation between ESA and NASA.


Mathias Jäger: ESA/Hubble, Public Information Officer: Garching bei München, Germany: Tel: +49 176 62397500: Email:


P: 220416


IC, I See the IC 417: The Spider Nebula, and the Fly, 10,000 Light Years Away from Earth in the Constellation of Auriga

Elizabeth Landau Writing












The Spider Nebula lies about 10,000 light-years away from Earth and is a site of active star formation. Image:NASA:JPL-Caltech:2MASS

||April 14, 2016 || A nebula known as "the Spider" glows fluorescent green in an infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS). The Spider, officially named IC 417, lies near a much smaller object called NGC 1931, not pictured in the image. Together, the two are called "The Spider and the Fly" nebulae. Nebulae are clouds of interstellar gas and dust where stars can form.

The Spider, located about 10,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation Auriga, is clearly a site of star formation. It resides in the outer part of the Milky Way, almost exactly in the opposite direction from the galactic center. A group of students, teachers and scientists focused their attention on this region as part of the NASA/IPAC Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) in 2015. They worked on identifying new stars in this area.

One of the largest clusters of young stars in the Spider can be seen easily in the image. Toward the right of center, against the black background of space, you can see a bright group of stars called "Stock 8." The light from this cluster carves out a bowl in the nearby dust clouds, seen in the imageas green fluff. Along the sinuous tail in the center, and to the left, the groupings of red point sources clumped in the green are also young stars.

In the image, infrared wavelengths, which are invisible to the unaided eye, have been assigned visible colors. Light with a wavelength of 1.2 microns, detected by 2MASS, is shown in blue. The Spitzer wavelengths of 3.6 and 4.5 microns are green and red, respectively.

Spitzer data used to create the image were obtained during the space telescope's "warm mission" phase, following its depletion of coolant in mid-2009. Due to its design, Spitzer remains cold enough to operate efficiently at two channels of infrared light. It is now in its 12th year of operation since launch.

The 2MASS mission was a joint effort between the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; the University of Massachusetts, Amherst; and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California.

JPL manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Spacecraft operations are based at Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company, Littleton, Colorado. Data from 2MASS and Spitzer are archived at the Infrared Science Archive housed at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) at Caltech. Caltech manages JPL for NASA.

More information on Spitzer can be found at its website

Elizabeth Landau: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA: 818-354-6425:


P: 150416


NASA Mission Suggests Sun and Planets Constructed Differently
















Artist Rendering of the Genesis Spacecraft During Collection Phase of Mission: Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

||April 11, 2016: Pasadena: Calif ||  Researchers analyzing samples returned by NASA's 2004 Genesis mission have discovered that our sun and its inner planets may have formed differently than previously thought.

Data revealed differences between the sun and planets in oxygen and nitrogen, which are two of the most abundant elements in our solar system. Although the difference is slight, the implications could help determine how our solar system evolved.

"We found that Earth, the moon, as well as Martian and other meteorites which are samples of asteroids, have a lower concentration of the O-16 than does the sun," said Kevin McKeegan, a Genesis co-investigator from UCLA, and the lead author of one of two Science papers published this week. "The implication is that we did not form out of the same solar nebula materials that created the sun -- just how and why remains to be discovered."

The air on Earth contains three different kinds of oxygen atoms which are differentiated by the number of neutrons they contain. Nearly 100 percent of oxygen atoms in the solar system are composed of O-16, but there are also tiny amounts of more exotic oxygen isotopes called O-17 and O-18. Researchers studying the oxygen of Genesis samples found that the percentage of O-16 in the sun is slightly higher than on Earth or on other terrestrial planets. The other isotopes' percentages were slightly lower.

Another paper detailed differences between the sun and planets in the element nitrogen. Like oxygen, nitrogen has one isotope, N-14, that makes up nearly 100 percent of the atoms in the solar system, but there is also a tiny amount of N-15. Researchers studying the same samples saw that when compared to Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen in the sun and Jupiter has slightly more N-14, but 40 percent less N-15. Both the sun and Jupiter appear to have the same nitrogen composition. As is the case for oxygen, Earth and the rest of the inner solar system are very different in nitrogen.

"These findings show that all solar system objects including the terrestrial planets, meteorites and comets are anomalous compared to the initial composition of the nebula from which the solar system formed," said Bernard Marty, a Genesis co-investigator from Centre de Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochimiques and the lead author of the other new Science paper. "Understanding the cause of such a heterogeneity will impact our view on the formation of the solar system."

Data were obtained from analysis of samples Genesis collected from the solar wind, or material ejected from the outer portion of the sun. This material can be thought of as a fossil of our nebula because the preponderance of scientific evidence suggests that the outer layer of our sun has not changed measurably for billions of years.

"The sun houses more than 99 percent of the material currently in our solar system, so it's a good idea to get to know it better," said Genesis Principal Investigator Don Burnett of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif. "While it was more challenging than expected, we have answered some important questions, and like all successful missions, generated plenty more."

Genesis launched in August 2000. The spacecraft traveled to Earth's L1 Lagrange Point about 1 million miles from Earth, where it remained for 886 days between 2001 and 2004, passively collecting solar-wind samples.

On Sept. 8, 2004, the spacecraft released a sample return capsule, which entered Earth's atmosphere. Although the capsule made a hard landing as a result of a failed parachute in the Utah Test and Training Range in Dugway, Utah, it marked NASA's first sample return since the final Apollo lunar mission in 1972, and the first material collected beyond the moon. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston curates the samples and supports analysis and sample allocation.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., managed the Genesis mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Genesis mission was part of the Discovery Program managed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, developed and operated the spacecraft. Analysis at the Centre de Recherches Pétrographiques et Géochimiques, Nancy, France, was supported by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, Paris, and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France.

For more information on the Genesis Mission

DC Agle 818-393-9011: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

Dwayne Brown 202-358-1726: NASA Headquarters, Washington:


P: 120416


O Celestial Butterfly: The Planetary Nebula NGC 6302



















This celestial object looks like a delicate butterfly. But it is far from serene: Credit: NASA, ESA and the Hubble SM4 ERO Team

||April 09, 2016 || What resemble dainty butterfly wings are actually roiling cauldrons of gas heated to nearly 20 000 degrees Celsius. The gas is tearing across space at more than 950 000 kilometres per hour — fast enough to travel from Earth to the Moon in 24 minutes! A dying star that was once about five times the mass of the Sun is at the centre of this fury. It has ejected its envelope of gases and is now unleashing a stream of ultraviolet radiation that is making the cast-off material glow.

This object is an example of a planetary nebula, so-named because many of them have a round appearance resembling that of a planet when viewed through a small telescope. The Wide Field Camera Three:WFC3, a new camera aboard the NASA:ESA Hubble Space Telescope, snapped this image of the planetary nebula, catalogued as NGC 6302, but more popularly called the Bug Nebula or the Butterfly Nebula. WFC3 was installed by NASA astronauts in May 2009, during the Servicing Mission to upgrade and repair the 19-year-old Hubble.

NGC 6302 lies within our Milky Way galaxy, roughly 3800 light-years away in the constellation of Scorpius. The glowing gas is the star's outer layers, expelled over about 2200 years. The "butterfly" stretches for more than two light-years, which is about half the distance from the Sun to the nearest star, Proxima Centauri.

The central star itself cannot be seen, because it is hidden within a doughnut-shaped ring of dust, which appears as a dark band pinching the nebula in the centre. The thick dust belt constricts the star's outflow, creating the classic "bipolar" or hourglass shape displayed by some planetary nebulae.

The star's surface temperature is estimated to be over 220 000 degrees Celsius, making it one of the hottest known stars in our galaxy. Spectroscopic observations made with ground-based telescopes show that the gas is roughly 20 000 degrees Celsius, which is unusually hot compared to a typical planetary nebula.

The WFC3 image reveals a complex history of ejections from the star. The star first evolved into a huge red giant, with a diameter of about 1000 times that of our Sun. It then lost its extended outer layers. Some of this gas was cast off from its equator at a relatively slow speed, perhaps as low as 32 000 kilometres per hour, creating the doughnut-shaped ring. Other gas was ejected perpendicular to the ring at higher speeds, producing the elongated "wings" of the butterfly-shaped structure. Later, as the central star heated up, a much faster stellar wind, a stream of charged particles travelling at more than 3.2 million kilometres per hour, ploughed through the existing wing-shaped structure, further modifying its shape.

The image also shows numerous finger-like projections pointing back to the star, which may mark denser blobs in the outflow that have resisted the pressure from the stellar wind.

The nebula's reddish outer edges are largely due to light emitted by nitrogen, which marks the coolest gas visible in the picture. WFC3 is equipped with a wide variety of filters that isolate light emitted by various chemical elements, allowing astronomers to infer properties of the nebular gas, such as its temperature, density and composition.

The white-coloured regions are areas where light is emitted by sulphur. These are regions where fast-moving gas overtakes and collides with slow-moving gas that left the star at an earlier time, producing shock waves in the gas (the bright white edges on the sides facing the central star). The white blob with the crisp edge at upper right is an example of one of those shock waves.

NGC 6302 was imaged on 27 July 2009 with Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3 in ultraviolet and visible light. Filters that isolate emissions from oxygen, helium, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur from the planetary nebula were used to create this composite image.

These Hubble observations of the planetary nebula NGC 6302 are part of the Hubble Servicing Mission 4 Early Release Observations.


P: 100416


Smile and See How the Universe Resonates

Jane Platt Writing

Galaxy Cluster SDSS J1038+4849 -
















NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope

April 06, 2016: An upbeat-looking galaxy cluster appears to smile at us in a newly released image from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. The cluster - designated as SDSS J1038+4849 - appears to have two eyes and a nose as part of a happy face.

Those eyes are actually very bright galaxies, and the smile lines are, in reality, arcs caused by an effect known as strong gravitational lensing.

Galaxy clusters are the most massive structures in the universe. Their gravitational pull is so strong, they warp the surrounding spacetime and act as cosmic lenses that can magnify, distort and bend light. The phenomenon can be explained by Einstein's theory of general relativity.

In this special case of gravitational lensing, an "Einstein Ring" is produced from this bending of light, a result of the exact and symmetrical alignment of the source, lens and observer. That's why we see the ring-like structure.

Hubble has provided astronomers with tools to study these massive galaxies and model their lensing effects. Because of this, scientists can peer further into the early universe than ever before.

This object was studied by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), developed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) as part of a survey of strong lenses. WFC3 was developed jointly by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland; the Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Maryland; and Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation, Boulder, Colorado.

News Media Contact: Jane Platt: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif: 818-354-0880: 2015-057


P: 060416


A Beautiful Cosmic Illusion?
















This Photo Taken in 2007 and Published Originally in 2008 and Released Again Today: A cosmic trick of the eye: Released 04/04/2016 10:38 am: Copyright NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage Team:STScI:AURA

April 04, 2016: Stars of different masses end their lives in different ways. While truly massive stars go out in a blaze of glory, intermediate-mass stars — those between roughly one and eight times the mass of the Sun — are somewhat quieter, forming cosmic objects known as planetary nebulas.

Named because of their vague resemblance to planets when seen through early, low-resolution telescopes, planetary nebulas are created when a dying star flings off its outer layers of gas into space. This cloud forms an expanding shell around the central star, while the star itself slowly cools to become a white dwarf. This is what has happened in this NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image, taken in 2007, which shows a planetary nebula known as NGC 2371.

NGC 2371 resides 4300 light-years away from us, in the constellation of Gemini. It is one of the largest planetary nebulas known, measuring roughly three light-years across. Its progenitor star can be seen here as a pinprick of orange–-red light, surrounded by a green, blue and aqua-tinged puff of gas. This shell appears to have a regular, elliptical shape that is sliced in half by a dark lane running through the nebula, which also encompasses the central star.

This dark feature misled astronomers when NGC 2371 was initially catalogued because the two lobes visually resembled two objects, not one. As a result of this confusion, the nebula has two names in William Herschel’s New General Catalogue: NGC 2371 and 2372 (often combined as NGC 2371/2 or NGC 2371-2).

Two prominent pink patches are also visible on either side of the central star. These features are thought to be knots of gas, most likely jets, thrown off by the star at some point in the past. Their pink colour indicates that they are cooler and denser than their surroundings.

The nebula’s central star was once similar to the Sun, but is now only a shadow of its former self. It is slowly cooling after energetically shedding most of its gas, but has a long way to go yet. It currently boasts a scorching surface temperature of over 130 000ºC – some 25 times hotter than the surface of the Sun – and glows with the luminosity of at least 700 Suns.

The hot ultraviolet radiation streaming outwards into the nebula energises the gas it touches, causing NGC 2371 to glow in the beautiful aquamarine colours seen in this image.

This picture was taken in November 2007 by Hubble’s Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. It is a false-colour image created with a combination of filters to detect light coming from sulphur and nitrogen (shown in red), hydrogen (green) and oxygen (blue). The observations were gathered as part of the Hubble Heritage project.

This image was originally published on the Hubble Space Telescope website on 4 March 2008.


P: 050416


How Do You Say Goodbye, If You are a Star?

















Image credit: ESA/Hubble & NASA, Acknowledgement: Serge Meunier

April 02, 2016: This planetary nebula is called PK 329-02.2 and is located in the constellation of Norma in the southern sky. It is also sometimes referred to as Menzel 2, or Mz 2, named after the astronomer Donald Menzel who discovered the nebula in 1922.

When stars that are around the mass of the sun reach their final stages of life, they shed their outer layers into space, which appear as glowing clouds of gas called planetary nebulae. The ejection of mass in stellar burnout is irregular and not symmetrical, so that planetary nebulae can have very complex shapes. In the case of Menzel 2 the nebula forms a winding blue cloud that perfectly aligns with two stars at its center. In 1999 astronomers discovered that the star at the upper right is in fact the central star of the nebula, and the star to the lower left is probably a true physical companion of the central star.

For tens of thousands of years the stellar core will be cocooned in spectacular clouds of gas and then, over a period of a few thousand years, the gas will fade away into the depths of the universe. The curving structure of Menzel 2 resembles a last goodbye before the star reaches its final stage of retirement as a white dwarf.

Text credit: European Space Agency

( Editor: Ashley Morrow: NASA)


P: 030416


This Tiny Human Endeavour to Gaze at the Heavens So to Light up Candles of Understanding by Finding Answers to Questions in the Infinite Darkness of this Universe













ESA’s 35 m-diameter dish antenna at New Norcia, Western Australia, glows with reflected laser light in this photo, taken by Dylan O’Donnell, a photographer based in Byron Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Photo Courtesy of ESA. Readmore  P: 050216

She Is Big, She Is Bright and She Is Definitely, Absolutely and Spirally Beautiful: The Thousand-Ruby Galaxy Or Rather M83













P: March 16, 2016

Image Credit: Subaru Telescope:NAOJ: Hubble Space Telescope, European Southern Observatory - Processing & Copyright: Robert Gendler: Readmore




|| The Humanion UK Online Daily: National International Universal News Learning and Society Newspaper ||












|| All copyrights @ The Humanion: London: England: United Kingdom || Contact: The Humanion: editor at || Regine Humanics Foundation Ltd: reginehumanics at || Editor: Munayem Mayenin || First Published: September 24: 2015 ||
|| Regine Humanics Foundation Ltd: A Human Enterprise: Registered as a Not For Profit Social Enterprise in England and Wales: Company No: 11346648 ||
|| The Humanion UK Online Daily: National International Universal News Learning and Society Newspaper ||