The Humanion Arkive Year Delta 2018-19
September 24: 2018-September 23:2019
The Arkives
First Published: September 24: 2015




























The World Arkive Year Delta 2018-19

September 24: 2018- September 23: 2019

The Humanion


The World Arkive Year Delta 2018-19

Q-Delta 2018: || October || November || December ||


Yemen Sees the Opening Glimmers of Hope for Peace: Truce Agreed Over the Key Port City of Hudaydah: The Warring Parties Should Note This That This Happened Not With Their Guns and Bombs But Their Agreeing to Abandon Them and Sit Around the Table with Their Minds and Pens and Papers



|| December 13: 2018 || ά. The announcement of a ceasefire between Yemen’s warring parties in and around the key port of Hudaydah, was hailed by Mr António Guterres, the UN Secretary-General, on Thursday, as a deal, which would improve the lives of millions of people. Speaking on the last day of UN-led talks in Sweden to decide the future of the war-torn country, where its people are in the grip of the world’s worst humanitarian crisis, Mr. Guterres told those present that they had the future of Yemen  in their hands.

‘’You have reached an agreement on Hudaydah port and city, which will see a mutual re-deployment of forces from the port and the city and the establishment of a Governorate-wide ceasefire.” he said. Mr Guterres noted that the UN would play a leading role in the port. “This will facilitate the humanitarian access and the flow of goods to the civilian population. It will improve the living conditions for millions of Yemenis.” he said. Nearly, four years after fighting escalated between the Government of Yemen and Houthi opposition movement, known, officially, as Ansar Allah, more than 24 million people, three-quarters of the population, need some form of assistance and protection.

Some 20 million are food insecure and 10 million of these people do not know how they will obtain their next meal. While noting that pending issues have yet to be resolved, Mr Guterres said that representatives from the internationally-recognised Government of Yemen and the opposition had made real progress, which had yielded several important results.

These included a mutual understanding to ease the situation in Taizz, which is the country’s third largest city. “We hope, this will lead to the opening of humanitarian corridors and the facilitation of demining.” he added. On the previously-agreed issue of a mass exchange of prisoners, the UN Secretary-General noted that both delegations had drawn up a timeline and provided further details on when it, might, happen.

He went onto say that that would allow thousands of Yemenis to be reunited with their families.

Looking ahead to a new meeting between both parties in the new year he said that another very important step for the peace process had been agreed, namely, a willingness to discuss a framework for negotiations.

“You have agreed to meet again to continue to discuss this further at the end of January during the next round of negotiations.” Mr. Guterres said, adding that it was a critical element of a future political settlement to end the conflict.

“We have a better understanding of the positions of the parties.” he added and noted their constructive engagement, while, also, crediting the Governments of Saudi Arabia, Oman and Kuwait for their concrete support in making the meeting happen.

Welcoming the announcement on the Hudaydah ceasefire, the World Food Programme:WFP underlined that the Red Sea port was key to importing some 70 per cent of Yemen’s humanitarian and 90 per cent of its commercial needs. “Any progress towards peace is good progress, as long as it helps the Yemeni people, who have suffered so much in this conflict.” said WFP Executive Director Mr David Beasley, who noted that what Yemen needed most was lasting peace.

“Today’s announcement gives us hope that the World Food Programme’s work to feed 12 million severely hungry Yemenis, may be, made easier in the coming weeks and months.”

In November, the target in Hodeidah Governorate was to reach 800,000 people in need of food assistance. This ceasefire will help humanitarian aid in people’s daily activities as the region is one of WFPs priorities.:::ω. 

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The World Is At Katowice: Let Thousands of Mathematicians Gather Around to Be Presented with the Solution of a Problem and See How Long These Thousands of Minds Take to Agree: They Will Literally Take the Time It Takes to Just Follow the Solution From the Beginning to the End: They Will Take Minutes to Agree: Will You Cease to Be Politicians and Put All Your So-Called National Interests to the Polish Bins in the Conference Hall and Stare at the Abyss of Extinction of Life and Its Entire Ecology on Earth If You Fail: Stare at the Abyss of Extinction and Like the Mathematicians Agree These Most Desperate of Actions Now


|| December 03: 2018 || ά. During the UN COP24 Climate Change Conference grand opening on Monday, the UN Secretary-General Mr António Guterres told over 150 world leaders gathered for climate action that the world was in deep trouble and asked decision-makers to focus on four key things: stepping up climate action, according to a solid plan, with more funding, as a smart investment in the future of the planet.

The two-week 24th Conference in Katowice, Poland, of the parties to the UN Climate Change Convention:UNFCCC, technically started on Sunday but Monday saw the high-level grand opening. It marks the deadline for the 197 parties, that signed the Convention, to adopt guidelines for the implementation of the historic 2015 Paris Agreement. In the French capital, three years ago, countries collectively agreed to keep global temperature rises to no more than 02°C above pre-industrial levels and, if, possible, to limit the rise to 01.5°C. Now, in Poland, they have to agree on how they will achieve this collectively. “We can not fail in Katowice.” he said.

Starting off the event, along with several other high-level representatives, he highlighted four key messages for the thousands of representatives of the world’s nations, non-profit organisations, UN agencies and private sector companies gathered in Katowice.

We need more action and more ambition: The Secretary-General started by noting that climate change was already a matter of life and death for many people, nations and countries of the world and that the science was telling us we needed to move faster.

Citing various alarming UN reports, including, one on rising global CO2 emissions and another one on increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, he called on nations to pay attention to the science and step up their pace, as well as, their ambitions. “Even, as we witness devastating climate impacts causing havoc across the world, we are still not doing enough, nor moving fast enough, to prevent irreversible and catastrophic climate disruption.” he stated. 

“Last year, I visited Barbuda and Dominica, which were devastated by hurricanes.  The destruction and suffering I saw was heart-breaking. These emergencies are preventable.’’

He called on the international community to work to ensure that emissions must decline by 45 per cent from 2010 levels by 2030 and be net zero by 2050 and that renewable energy would need to supply half to two-thirds of the world’s primary energy by 2050 with a corresponding reduction in fossil fuels.

“If, we fail, the Arctic and Antarctic will continue to melt, corals will bleach and, then, die, the oceans will rise, more people will die from air pollution, water scarcity will plague a significant proportion of humanity and the cost of disasters will skyrocket.” he warned the delegates ahead of their negotiations. 

Implementation guidelines are essential to build trust among nations: “We have no time for limitless negotiations.” he insisted on the need to operationalise the Paris Agreement and reminded Member States that 2018 was the deadline, that they set for themselves to finalise the guidelines for implementation.

“We need a unifying implementation vision, that sets out clear rules, inspires action and promotes raised ambition, based on the principle of equity and common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities, in light of different national circumstances.” he said.

“We achieved success in Paris because negotiators were working towards a common goal.” he added as he implored the delegates to maintain the same spirit of urgent collaboration to ensure that the bonds of trust established in Paris would endure.

Adequate funding of climate action will be central: ‘’We need concerted resource mobilisation and investment to, successfully, combat climate change.” Mr Guterres told the delegates attending the COP24 grand opening, noting that three quarters of the infrastructure needed by 2050 for climate action still remained to be built.

He insisted on the need to focus efforts on five key economic areas: energy, cities, land use, water and industry. “Governments and investors need to bet on the green economy, not the grey.” he saud. Mr Guterres stressed the need to embrace carbon pricing, i.e, charging emitters of CO2 for their emissions, eliminate harmful fossil fuel subsidies and invest in clean technologies.

“It, also, means providing a fair transition for those workers in traditional sectors, that face disruption, including, through retraining and social safety nets.” He further said that a collective responsibility to assist the most vulnerable communities and countries must be assumed, such as, small island nations and the least developed countries, by supporting adaptation and resilience.”

In 2015, a total of 18 high-income nations committed to providing US$100 billion dollars a year, by 2020, to lower-income nations to support their climate action. Mr. Guterres urged developed nations to deliver on this commitment. He, also, urged Member States to swiftly implement the replenishment of the Green Climate Fund. It is an investment in a safer, less costly future.

Climate action makes social and economic sense: “All too often, climate action is seen as a burden.” said Mr Guterres as he explained that decisive climate action today was our chance to right our ship and set a course for a better future for all.

He commended cities, regions, civil society and the business community around the world for moving ahead. “What we need is political more will and more far-sighted leadership. This is the challenge on which this generation’s leaders will be judged. 

According to the recent New Climate Economy report, ‘ambitious climate action could yield 65 million jobs and a direct economic gain of $26 trillion US dollars compared to business as usual over the next 12 years’. Mr Guterres stressed the need to ensure that economic transformation was led with a commitment to gender equality and the inclusion of youth. “We must start today building the tomorrow we want.” he said.

Audacity and five times more ambition needed: Echoing the UN Secretary-General’s remarks, the Prime Minister of Fiji, Mr Frank Bainimarama, who presided over COP23 called on the world to deliver ‘five times more ambition, five times more action’ and avoid ‘becoming the generation, that betrayed humanity’.

The President of the UN General Assembly, Ms Maria Fernanda Espinosa, called for audacity in climate action and noted that multilateralism was the only way to reverse the negative effects of global warming.

As for the President of this COP, Mr Michał Kurtyka, referring to the mining past of Katowice, he invited the delegates to ‘pursue a path of deep but just transition’ when bringing the Paris agreement to life. Earlier, the President of Poland, Mr Andrzej Duda, presented a ‘Declaration for a Just Transition’.

During the grand opening, the World Bank Chief Executive Officer, Ms Kristalina Georgiewa, also, announced that the World Bank would double the world’s commitment to climate action after 2020 by allocating $100 billion, half of which would be dedicated, specifically, to climate adaptation and resilience.

The event closed with an address by the world’s people delivered by world renowned naturalist Sir David Attenborough. The statement was inspired by thousands of messages posted by individuals over the past weeks, urging world leaders for climate action.

“Their message is clear: time is running out. They want you, the decision makers to act now. They’re behind you, along with the civil society represented here today.” he said.:::ω.

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The Financial Crisis Ten Years On: Governments are Experiencing Collective Amnesia Towards of One of the Biggest Factors Behind the 2008 Global Financial Crash the Housing Crisis: Which Has Not Been Addressed and Is Only Getting Worse: UN Special Rapporteur



|| November 29: 2018 || ά. ‘’10 years on, governments are experiencing collective amnesia towards of one of the biggest factors behind the 2008 global financial crash, the housing crisis, which has not been addressed and is only getting worse.’’ said Ms Leilani Farha, UN Special Rapporteur on Adequate Housing, in a statement on Thursday. She said that the right to an adequate standard of living, including, adequate housing, is recognised in the UN’s Universal Declaration of Human Rights and, has, since, been recognised or referred to, in other international human rights treaties.

‘’Even, in these countries, which comprise the world’s wealthiest States, millions of people are struggling to find and maintain an adequate and affordable place to live and one quarter of the world’s urban population is living in ‘informal settlements’.” she said. Ms. Farha, an independent expert, who is, also, the Executive Director of the NGO Canada Without Poverty, released the statement as the leaders of the world’s leading industrialised countries gather in Argentina for the G20 meeting in the capital, Buenos Aires, which begins on Friday.

Ms. Farhi said that, against this backdrop, the world economy can hardly be considered stable and that this instability was being caused by a new global order, which treats housing as a commodity and a financial instrument to park, grow and leverage capital.”

Ms Farha has called for the G20 to ensure that financial actors and their governments are prevented from selling-off the human right to housing to the highest bidder.

She said that it was key to ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing, one of the targets of Sustainable Development Goal 11, which covers sustainable cities and communities.

 “Governments have actively encouraged through tax structures, laws, policies and a lack of regulations, private financial actors to purchase large swathes of housing in ‘under-valued’ areas and to buy up foreclosed mortgages, affordable housing and, even, social housing stock.”said Ms Farha.

“As a consequence, low-income and increasingly middle-income households are being evicted and priced-out of neighbourhoods.” she added.:::ω.

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United States of Truth: Let America Speak the Truth Because She Can: The Land of the Truth: The Science of Global Warming and Climate Change: That Nobody Can Opinion-Engineer Their Way Against: The Fourth National Climate Assessment Report



|| November 25: 2018 || ά. We very much hope this Report refocuses the American people to the Eternal Phrase in the American Constitution: ’We The People’: United States of America is This: We The People and this Report demonstrates this fact, once again, that these ‘We The People Shall Not Be Denied the Truth and this Truth is here in this Report. Let this inspire America and the World and bring both together in working in unison partnership with a common purpose of protecting, nurturing and safe-guarding and advancing our common humanity and common destiny on this Earth. And our fellow humanions, the Americans will soon turn their country towards embracing this world and world humanity because they are all an inalienable part of this Earth’s humanity.

We publish in this Report as it is published, without any editing whatsoever and with the American Spelling System intact, as an exception, The Fourth National Climate Assessment, conducted and published by a range of United States Federal Bodies, under ‘’The Global Change Research Act of 1990 mandates that the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) deliver a report to Congress and the President no less than every four years that “1) integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the Program…; 2) analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and 3) analyzes current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years.”1.

And this truth is here and this Report not only presents it but, at the same times, reasserts this statement of fact that there is no ‘politicking’ about the truth. It is what it is: the truth is this: U.S.A stands for, United States of America. There is no other opinion or opinioneering about it. Therefore, The Humanion presents The USA Fourth National Climate Assessment Report, which is a ‘Mandatory or Statutory’ Report by the Statutory Federal Mechanism of the United States of America. Democracy and the Rule of Law: goodness, aren’t they beautiful things! What follows is the Way the Report has been published by the Federal bodies.


Summary Findings

These Summary Findings represent a high-level synthesis of the material in the underlying report. The findings consolidate Key Messages and supporting evidence from 16 national-level topic chapters, 10 regional chapters, and 2 chapters that focus on societal response strategies (mitigation and adaptation). Unless otherwise noted, qualitative statements regarding future conditions in these Summary Findings are broadly applicable across the range of different levels of future climate change and associated impacts considered in this report. 

1. Communities

Climate change creates new risks and exacerbates existing vulnerabilities in communities across the United States, presenting growing challenges to human health and safety, quality of life, and the rate of economic growth.

The impacts of climate change are already being felt in communities across the country. More frequent and intense extreme weather and climate-related events, as well as changes in average climate conditions, are expected to continue to damage infrastructure, ecosystems, and social systems that provide essential benefits to communities. Future climate change is expected to further disrupt many areas of life, exacerbating existing challenges to prosperity posed by aging and deteriorating infrastructure, stressed ecosystems, and economic inequality. Impacts within and across regions will not be distributed equally. People who are already vulnerable, including lower-income and other marginalized communities, have lower capacity to prepare for and cope with extreme weather and climate-related events and are expected to experience greater impacts. Prioritizing adaptation actions for the most vulnerable populations would contribute to a more equitable future within and across communities. Global action to significantly cut greenhouse gas emissions can substantially reduce climate-related risks and increase opportunities for these populations in the longer term. 

2. Economy

Without substantial and sustained global mitigation and regional adaptation efforts, climate change is expected to cause growing losses to American infrastructure and property and impede the rate of economic growth over this century.

In the absence of significant global mitigation action and regional adaptation efforts, rising temperatures, sea level rise, and changes in extreme events are expected to increasingly disrupt and damage critical infrastructure and property, labor productivity, and the vitality of our communities. Regional economies and industries that depend on natural resources and favorable climate conditions, such as agriculture, tourism, and fisheries, are vulnerable to the growing impacts of climate change. Rising temperatures are projected to reduce the efficiency of power generation while increasing energy demands, resulting in higher electricity costs. The impacts of climate change beyond our borders are expected to increasingly affect our trade and economy, including import and export prices and U.S. businesses with overseas operations and supply chains. Some aspects of our economy may see slight near-term improvements in a modestly warmer world. However, the continued warming that is projected to occur without substantial and sustained reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions is expected to cause substantial net damage to the U.S. economy throughout this century, especially in the absence of increased adaptation efforts. With continued growth in emissions at historic rates, annual losses in some economic sectors are projected to reach hundreds of billions of dollars by the end of the century—more than the current gross domestic product (GDP) of many U.S. states. 

3. Interconnected Impacts

Climate change affects the natural, built, and social systems we rely on individually and through their connections to one another. These interconnected systems are increasingly vulnerable to cascading impacts that are often difficult to predict, threatening essential services within and beyond the Nation’s borders.

Climate change presents added risks to interconnected systems that are already exposed to a range of stressors such as aging and deteriorating infrastructure, land-use changes, and population growth. Extreme weather and climate-related impacts on one system can result in increased risks or failures in other critical systems, including water resources, food production and distribution, energy and transportation, public health, international trade, and national security. The full extent of climate change risks to interconnected systems, many of which span regional and national boundaries, is often greater than the sum of risks to individual sectors. Failure to anticipate interconnected impacts can lead to missed opportunities for effectively managing the risks of climate change and can also lead to management responses that increase risks to other sectors and regions. Joint planning with stakeholders across sectors, regions, and jurisdictions can help identify critical risks arising from interaction among systems ahead of time. 

4. Actions to Reduce Risks

Communities, governments, and businesses are working to reduce risks from and costs associated with climate change by taking action to lower greenhouse gas emissions and implement adaptation strategies. While mitigation and adaptation efforts have expanded substantially in the last four years, they do not yet approach the scale considered necessary to avoid substantial damages to the economy, environment, and human health over the coming decades.

Future risks from climate change depend primarily on decisions made today. The integration of climate risk into decision-making and the implementation of adaptation activities have significantly increased since the Third National Climate Assessment in 2014, including in areas of financial risk reporting, capital investment planning, development of engineering standards, military planning, and disaster risk management. Transformations in the energy sector—including the displacement of coal by natural gas and increased deployment of renewable energy—along with policy actions at the national, regional, state, and local levels are reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. While these adaptation and mitigation measures can help reduce damages in a number of sectors, this assessment shows that more immediate and substantial global greenhouse gas emissions reductions, as well as regional adaptation efforts, would be needed to avoid the most severe consequences in the long term. Mitigation and adaptation actions also present opportunities for additional benefits that are often more immediate and localized, such as improving local air quality and economies through investments in infrastructure. Some benefits, such as restoring ecosystems and increasing community vitality, may be harder to quantify. 

5. Water

The quality and quantity of water available for use by people and ecosystems across the country are being affected by climate change, increasing risks and costs to agriculture, energy production, industry, recreation, and the environment.

Rising air and water temperatures and changes in precipitation are intensifying droughts, increasing heavy downpours, reducing snowpack, and causing declines in surface water quality, with varying impacts across regions. Future warming will add to the stress on water supplies and adversely impact the availability of water in parts of the United States. Changes in the relative amounts and timing of snow and rainfall are leading to mismatches between water availability and needs in some regions, posing threats to, for example, the future reliability of hydropower production in the Southwest and the Northwest. Groundwater depletion is exacerbating drought risk in many parts of the United States, particularly in the Southwest and Southern Great Plains. Dependable and safe water supplies for U.S. Caribbean, Hawai‘i, and U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Island communities are threatened by drought, flooding, and saltwater contamination due to sea level rise. Most U.S. power plants rely on a steady supply of water for cooling, and operations are expected to be affected by changes in water availability and temperature increases. Aging and deteriorating water infrastructure, typically designed for past environmental conditions, compounds the climate risk faced by society. Water management strategies that account for changing climate conditions can help reduce present and future risks to water security, but implementation of such practices remains limited. 

6. Health

Impacts from climate change on extreme weather and climate-related events, air quality, and the transmission of disease through insects and pests, food, and water increasingly threaten the health and well-being of the American people, particularly populations that are already vulnerable.

Changes in temperature and precipitation are increasing air quality and health risks from wildfire and ground-level ozone pollution. Rising air and water temperatures and more intense extreme events are expected to increase exposure to waterborne and foodborne diseases, affecting food and water safety. With continued warming, cold-related deaths are projected to decrease and heat-related deaths are projected to increase; in most regions, increases in heat-related deaths are expected to outpace reductions in cold-related deaths. The frequency and severity of allergic illnesses, including asthma and hay fever, are expected to increase as a result of a changing climate. Climate change is also projected to alter the geographic range and distribution of disease-carrying insects and pests, exposing more people to ticks that carry Lyme disease and mosquitoes that transmit viruses such as Zika, West Nile, and dengue, with varying impacts across regions. Communities in the Southeast, for example, are particularly vulnerable to the combined health impacts from vector-borne disease, heat, and flooding. Extreme weather and climate-related events can have lasting mental health consequences in affected communities, particularly if they result in degradation of livelihoods or community relocation. Populations including older adults, children, low-income communities, and some communities of color are often disproportionately affected by, and less resilient to, the health impacts of climate change. Adaptation and mitigation policies and programs that help individuals, communities, and states prepare for the risks of a changing climate reduce the number of injuries, illnesses, and deaths from climate-related health outcomes. 

7. Indigenous Peoples

Climate change increasingly threatens Indigenous communities’ livelihoods, economies, health, and cultural identities by disrupting interconnected social, physical, and ecological systems.

Many Indigenous peoples are reliant on natural resources for their economic, cultural, and physical well-being and are often uniquely affected by climate change. The impacts of climate change on water, land, coastal areas, and other natural resources, as well as infrastructure and related services, are expected to increasingly disrupt Indigenous peoples’ livelihoods and economies, including agriculture and agroforestry, fishing, recreation, and tourism. Adverse impacts on subsistence activities have already been observed. As climate changes continue, adverse impacts on culturally significant species and resources are expected to result in negative physical and mental health effects. Throughout the United States, climate-related impacts are causing some Indigenous peoples to consider or actively pursue community relocation as an adaptation strategy, presenting challenges associated with maintaining cultural and community continuity. While economic, political, and infrastructure limitations may affect these communities’ ability to adapt, tightly knit social and cultural networks present opportunities to build community capacity and increase resilience. Many Indigenous peoples are taking steps to adapt to climate change impacts structured around self-determination and traditional knowledge, and some tribes are pursuing mitigation actions through development of renewable energy on tribal lands. 

8. Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services

Ecosystems and the benefits they provide to society are being altered by climate change, and these impacts are projected to continue. Without substantial and sustained reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions, transformative impacts on some ecosystems will occur; some coral reef and sea ice ecosystems are already experiencing such transformational changes.

Many benefits provided by ecosystems and the environment, such as clean air and water, protection from coastal flooding, wood and fiber, crop pollination, hunting and fishing, tourism, cultural identities, and more will continue to be degraded by the impacts of climate change. Increasing wildfire frequency, changes in insect and disease outbreaks, and other stressors are expected to decrease the ability of U.S. forests to support economic activity, recreation, and subsistence activities. Climate change has already had observable impacts on biodiversity, ecosystems, and the benefits they provide to society. These impacts include the migration of native species to new areas and the spread of invasive species. Such changes are projected to continue, and without substantial and sustained reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions, extinctions and transformative impacts on some ecosystems cannot be avoided in the long term. Valued aspects of regional heritage and quality of life tied to ecosystems, wildlife, and outdoor recreation will change with the climate, and as a result, future generations can expect to experience and interact with the natural environment in ways that are different from today. Adaptation strategies, including prescribed burning to reduce fuel for wildfire, creation of safe havens for important species, and control of invasive species, are being implemented to address emerging impacts of climate change. While some targeted response actions are underway, many impacts, including losses of unique coral reef and sea ice ecosystems, can only be avoided by significantly reducing global emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. 

9. Agriculture

Rising temperatures, extreme heat, drought, wildfire on rangelands, and heavy downpours are expected to increasingly disrupt agricultural productivity in the United States. Expected increases in challenges to livestock health, declines in crop yields and quality, and changes in extreme events in the United States and abroad threaten rural livelihoods, sustainable food security, and price stability.

Climate change presents numerous challenges to sustaining and enhancing crop productivity, livestock health, and the economic vitality of rural communities. While some regions (such as the Northern Great Plains) may see conditions conducive to expanded or alternative crop productivity over the next few decades, overall, yields from major U.S. crops are expected to decline as a consequence of increases in temperatures and possibly changes in water availability, soil erosion, and disease and pest outbreaks. Increases in temperatures during the growing season in the Midwest are projected to be the largest contributing factor to declines in the productivity of U.S. agriculture. Projected increases in extreme heat conditions are expected to lead to further heat stress for livestock, which can result in large economic losses for producers. Climate change is also expected to lead to large-scale shifts in the availability and prices of many agricultural products across the world, with corresponding impacts on U.S. agricultural producers and the U.S. economy. These changes threaten future gains in commodity crop production and put rural livelihoods at risk. Numerous adaptation strategies are available to cope with adverse impacts of climate variability and change on agricultural production. These include altering what is produced, modifying the inputs used for production, adopting new technologies, and adjusting management strategies. However, these strategies have limits under severe climate change impacts and would require sufficient long- and short-term investment in changing practices. 

10. Infrastructure

Our Nation’s aging and deteriorating infrastructure is further stressed by increases in heavy precipitation events, coastal flooding, heat, wildfires, and other extreme events, as well as changes to average precipitation and temperature. Without adaptation, climate change will continue to degrade infrastructure performance over the rest of the century, with the potential for cascading impacts that threaten our economy, national security, essential services, and health and well-being.

Climate change and extreme weather events are expected to increasingly disrupt our Nation’s energy and transportation systems, threatening more frequent and longer-lasting power outages, fuel shortages, and service disruptions, with cascading impacts on other critical sectors. Infrastructure currently designed for historical climate conditions is more vulnerable to future weather extremes and climate change. The continued increase in the frequency and extent of high-tide flooding due to sea level rise threatens America’s trillion-dollar coastal property market and public infrastructure, with cascading impacts to the larger economy. In Alaska, rising temperatures and erosion are causing damage to buildings and coastal infrastructure that will be costly to repair or replace, particularly in rural areas; these impacts are expected to grow without adaptation. Expected increases in the severity and frequency of heavy precipitation events will affect inland infrastructure in every region, including access to roads, the viability of bridges, and the safety of pipelines. Flooding from heavy rainfall, storm surge, and rising high tides is expected to compound existing issues with aging infrastructure in the Northeast. Increased drought risk will threaten oil and gas drilling and refining, as well as electricity generation from power plants that rely on surface water for cooling. Forward-looking infrastructure design, planning, and operational measures and standards can reduce exposure and vulnerability to the impacts of climate change and reduce energy use while providing additional near-term benefits, including reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. 

11. Oceans & Coasts

Coastal communities and the ecosystems that support them are increasingly threatened by the impacts of climate change. Without significant reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions and regional adaptation measures, many coastal regions will be transformed by the latter part of this century, with impacts affecting other regions and sectors. Even in a future with lower greenhouse gas emissions, many communities are expected to suffer financial impacts as chronic high-tide flooding leads to higher costs and lower property values.

Rising water temperatures, ocean acidification, retreating arctic sea ice, sea level rise, high-tide flooding, coastal erosion, higher storm surge, and heavier precipitation events threaten our oceans and coasts. These effects are projected to continue, putting ocean and marine species at risk, decreasing the productivity of certain fisheries, and threatening communities that rely on marine ecosystems for livelihoods and recreation, with particular impacts on fishing communities in Hawai‘i and the U.S.-Affiliated Pacific Islands, the U.S. Caribbean, and the Gulf of Mexico. Lasting damage to coastal property and infrastructure driven by sea level rise and storm surge is expected to lead to financial losses for individuals, businesses, and communities, with the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts facing above-average risks. Impacts on coastal energy and transportation infrastructure driven by sea level rise and storm surge have the potential for cascading costs and disruptions across the country. Even if significant emissions reductions occur, many of the effects from sea level rise over this centuryand particularly through mid-centuryare already locked in due to historical emissions, and many communities are already dealing with the consequences. Actions to plan for and adapt to more frequent, widespread, and severe coastal flooding, such as shoreline protection and conservation of coastal ecosystems, would decrease direct losses and cascading impacts on other sectors and parts of the country. More than half of the damages to coastal property are estimated to be avoidable through well-timed adaptation measures. Substantial and sustained reductions in global greenhouse gas emissions would also significantly reduce projected risks to fisheries and communities that rely on them. 

12. Tourism and Recreation

Outdoor recreation, tourist economies, and quality of life are reliant on benefits provided by our natural environment that will be degraded by the impacts of climate change in many ways.

Climate change poses risks to seasonal and outdoor economies in communities across the United States, including impacts on economies centered around coral reef-based recreation, winter recreation, and inland water-based recreation. In turn, this affects the well-being of the people who make their living supporting these economies, including rural, coastal, and Indigenous communities. Projected increases in wildfire smoke events are expected to impair outdoor recreational activities and visibility in wilderness areas. Declines in snow and ice cover caused by warmer winter temperatures are expected to negatively impact the winter recreation industry in the Northwest, Northern Great Plains, and the Northeast. Some fish, birds, and mammals are expected to shift where they live as a result of climate change, with implications for hunting, fishing, and other wildlife-related activities. These and other climate-related impacts are expected to result in decreased tourism revenue in some places and, for some communities, loss of identity. While some new opportunities may emerge from these ecosystem changes, cultural identities and economic and recreational opportunities based around historical use of and interaction with species or natural resources in many areas are at risk. Proactive management strategies, such as the use of projected stream temperatures to set priorities for fish conservation, can help reduce disruptions to tourist economies and recreation. 

About This Report: 

The National Climate Assessment

The Global Change Research Act of 1990 mandates that the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) deliver a report to Congress and the President no less than every four years that “1) integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the Program…; 2) analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and 3) analyzes current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years.”1 

The Fourth National Climate Assessment (NCA4) fulfills that mandate in two volumes. This report, Volume II, draws on the foundational science described in Volume I, the Climate Science Special Report (CSSR).2 Volume II focuses on the human welfare, societal, and environmental elements of climate change and variability for 10 regions and 18 national topics, with particular attention paid to observed and projected risks, impacts, consideration of risk reduction, and implications under different mitigation pathways. Where possible, NCA4 Volume II provides examples of actions underway in communities across the United States to reduce the risks associated with climate change, increase resilience, and improve livelihoods. 

This assessment was written to help inform decision-makers, utility and natural resource managers, public health officials, emergency planners, and other stakeholders by providing a thorough examination of the effects of climate change on the United States. 

Climate Science Special Report: NCA4 Volume I

The Climate Science Special Report (CSSR), published in 2017, serves as the first volume of NCA4. It provides a detailed analysis of how climate change is affecting the physical earth system across the United States and provides the foundational physical science upon which much of the assessment of impacts in this report is based. The CSSR integrates and evaluates current findings on climate science and discusses the uncertainties associated with these findings. It analyzes trends in climate change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends to the end of this century. Projected changes in temperature, precipitation patterns, sea level rise, and other climate outcomes are based on a range of scenarios widely used in the climate research community, referred to as Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). As an assessment and analysis of the physical science, the CSSR provides important input to the development of other parts of NCA4 and their primary focus on the human welfare, societal, economic, and environmental elements of climate change. A summary of the CSSR is provided in Chapter 2 (Our Changing Climate) of this report; the full report can be accessed at 

Report Development, Review, and Approval Process

The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) served as the administrative lead agency for the preparation of this report. A Federal Steering Committee, composed of representatives from USGCRP agencies, oversaw the report’s development. 

A team of more than 300 federal and non-federal experts—including individuals from federal, state, and local governments, tribes and Indigenous communities, national laboratories, universities, and the private sector—volunteered their time to produce the assessment, with input from external stakeholders at each stage of the process. A series of regional engagement workshops reached more than 1,000 individuals in over 40 cities, while listening sessions, webinars, and public comment periods provided valuable input to the authors. Participants included decision-makers from the public and private sectors, resource and environmental managers, scientists, educators, representatives from businesses and nongovernmental organizations, and the interested public. 

NCA4 Volume II was thoroughly reviewed by external experts and the general public, as well as the Federal Government (that is, the NCA4 Federal Steering Committee and several rounds of technical and policy review by the 13 federal agencies of the USGCRP). An expert external peer review of the whole report was performed by an ad hoc committee of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (NASEM).3 Additional information on the development of this assessment can be found in Appendix 1: Report Development Process. 

Sources Used in This Report

The findings in this report are based on an assessment of the peer-reviewed scientific literature, complemented by other sources (such as gray literature) where appropriate. In addition, authors used well-established and carefully evaluated observational and modeling datasets, technical input reports, USGCRP’s sustained assessment products, and a suite of scenario products. Each source was determined to meet the standards of the Information Quality Act (see Appendix 2: Information in the Fourth National Climate Assessment). 

Sustained Assessment Products

The USGCRP’s sustained assessment process facilitates and draws upon the ongoing participation of scientists and stakeholders, enabling the assessment of new information and insights as they emerge. The USGCRP led the development of two major sustained assessment products as inputs to NCA4: The Impacts of Climate Change on Human Health in the United States: A Scientific Assessment4 and the Second State of the Carbon Cycle Report.5 In addition, USGCRP agencies contributed products that improve the thoroughness of this assessment, including the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s scientific assessment Climate Change, Global Food Security, and the U.S. Food System;6 NOAA’s Climate Resilience Toolkit, Climate Explorer, and State Climate Summaries; the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s updated economic impacts of climate change report;7 and a variety of USGCRP indicators and scenario products that support the evaluation of climate-related risks (see Appendix 3: Data Tools and Scenario Products). 

USGCRP Scenario Products

As part of the sustained assessment process, federal interagency groups developed a suite of high-resolution scenario products that span a range of plausible future changes (through at least 2100) in key environmental parameters. This new generation of USGCRP scenario products (hosted at  includes 

changes in average and extreme statistics of key climate variables (for example, temperature and precipitation),

 changes in local sea level rise along the entire U.S. coastline,

 changes in population as a function of demographic shifts and migration, and

 changes in land use driven by population changes. 

USGCRP scenario products help ensure consistency in underlying assumptions across the report and therefore improve the ability to compare and synthesize results across chapters. Where possible, authors have used the range of these scenario products to frame uncertainty in future climate and associated effects as it relates to the risks that are the focus of their chapters. As discussed briefly elsewhere in this Front Matter and in more detail in Appendix 3 (Data Tools and Scenario Products), future scenarios referred to as RCPs provide the global framing for NCA4 Volumes I and II. RCPs focus on outputs (such as emissions and concentrations of greenhouse gases and particulate matter) that are in turn fed into climate models. As such, a wide range of future socioeconomic assumptions, at the global and national scale (such as population growth, technological innovation, and carbon intensity of energy mix), could be consistent with the RCPs used throughout NCA4. For this reason, further guidance on U.S. population and land-use assumptions was provided to authors. See Appendix 3: Data Tools and Scenario Products, including Table A3.1, for additional detail on these scenario products. 

:: We publish in this Report as it is published, without any editing whatsoever and with the American Spelling System intact, as an exception, The Fourth National Climate Assessment, conducted and published by a range of United States Federal Bodies, under ‘The Global Change Research Act of 1990 mandates that the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) deliver a report to Congress and the President no less than every four years that “1) integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the Program…; 2) analyzes the effects of global change on the natural environment, agriculture, energy production and use, land and water resources, transportation, human health and welfare, human social systems, and biological diversity; and 3) analyzes current trends in global change, both human-induced and natural, and projects major trends for the subsequent 25 to 100 years.”1.:  

Since it is a Substantive piece of Research, we invite and encourage readers to take time and read it and let others read the Report.

Read the Brief Report as PDF

Read the Whole Report Here::::ω. 

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Why Does the World Have No Time for the Desperate Suffering of the Ukrainian People Stuck in This Ever Going Conflict: Temperatures Plunge Amid Rising Humanitarian Needs While the UN Humanitarian Response Plan Fund for the Country Only Has Received 36% Funding Required


|| November 15: 2018 || ά. Amidst an ongoing active conflict, that seems to have fallen off the international community’s radar, temperatures in eastern Ukraine dropping well below zero and leaving millions in need of urgent humanitarian assistance, according to the United Nations, highlighting the plight of these forgotten people and calling for support.

In Geneva on Thursday, Ms Osnat Lubrani, the UN Humanitarian Co-ordinator in Ukraine, briefed UN Member States on the human cost and consequences of the severe humanitarian crisis and called on international donors to urgently increase funding to help vulnerable families through the long harsh winter. “Thanks to generous support by donors, so far this year more than one million most vulnerable Ukrainians have received vital assistance and protection services.” she said.

“But funding is now falling short.” While humanitarians are racing to prepare for frigid winter temperatures, aid workers have reached people with shelter, food and livelihood support, cash assistance and access to health care and education.

However, she pointed out, the 2018 Humanitarian Response Plan remains only 36 per cent funded. “Lack of funds means that the basic needs of millions of men, women and children continue to be denied.” warned Ms. Lubrani.

“I call on the Member States to stand in solidarity with the people of eastern Ukraine and help sustain them through the cold winter, which is compounded by overwhelming needs in the areas of mental health and psychological trauma, protection, mine action, shelter, health, livelihoods, water, sanitation and hygiene.” she said.

Each month, more than 01.1 million civilian crossings occur through the 427-plus km-long so-called ‘contact line’. Civilians regularly endure long delays, risk hostilities and landmines and struggle with undignified conditions to maintain family links and access basic services. While commending efforts to improve crossing conditions, Ms. Lubrani stressed that more needed to be done on both sides during this harsh winter at the checkpoints, pointing to the lack of adequate water, sanitation facilities and heating.

With thousands of ceasefire violations every month, shelling, sniper-fire and landmines in eastern Ukraine continue to kill and maim civilians. Since 2014, over 3,000 civilians have lost their lives.

“This year only, we have seen more than 73 incidents affecting critical water infrastructure and, if, the shelling continues during the winter, people will struggle to keep warm and frequent water interruption increases the risks of communicable disease outbreaks.” Ms Lubrani said, referring to fragile interconnected water and heating systems. 

“Civilians and critical civilian infrastructure must be spared and protected according to the international humanitarian law. They are not a target.”

In late February 2014, the situation in Ukraine went from political crisis, to violent confrontation and, later, became a full-scale conflict in the east, which has claimed the lives of over 3,000 civilians so far.

Caption: People wait in line at Maiorske Entry:Exit Checkpoint in eastern Ukraine: Image: OCHA Ukraine:O.Gaskevych:::ω.

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The Missing Piece Has Gone Looking for the Missing P in Neumonia: Where the Missing P Equates to 02.6 Million Lives Lost in the Last Year Alone: Just Because Humanity Is Made of Few Billions Does Not and Must Not Mean That We Should Not Even Blink Where Millions of Human Beings are Dying From Preventable Causes





For a Better Human Condition Than This: Capitalism Is Where and When It Is Normal for 02.6 Million Human Beings to Die From Pneumonia Alone Only in a Year and the Humanity Peopling This Earth Accept This as 'Normal': This Is NOT acceptable: Not a Single Human Should Die From Preventable Causes








|| November 14: 2018: University of Southampton News || ά. Dr Michael Head, a University of Southampton Researcher has called for immediate action to tackle pneumonia after a new report named the condition as the leading infectious disease killer in the world, claiming an estimated 02.6 million lives in 2017. Dr Head, Senior Research Fellow in Global Health in the Clinical Informatics Research Unit at the University of Southampton, is a major contributor to the report ‘The Missing Piece: why continued neglect of Pneumonia threatens the achievement of health goals’, which was published to coincide with World Pneumonia Day, Monday, November 12.

Using the latest Global Burden of Disease:GBD data, ‘The Missing Piece’ Report places the responsibility for such a high death rate on the historically low priority given to pneumonia by national governments and the relatively low levels of international development assistance and research and development spending allocated to pneumonia-related activities. “Pneumonia is a disease, that has not caught the public’s attention, despite the massive number of deaths each year.” said Dr Head, who has, also, been named as one of 10 global ‘Pneumonia Fighters’ by the campaign group Just Actions for pushing research boundaries.

“There are few high-profile advocates and, as our research shows, there has been very little funding for research into Pneumonia compared to other infectious diseases, such as, Malaria and AIDS.” Dr Head sais. “This has to change and needs addressing with a joined-up approach to prioritising and funding research from global health organisations, such as, the World Health Organisation, research funders, Save the Children, UNICEF and national governments.”

‘The Missing Piece’ Report shows that Pneumonia prevention, diagnosis and treatment are not a priority for domestic health budgets, as the disease attracted just 06% or $US05.7 billion of the total $US92 billion in development assistance allocated between 2007 and 2016 to HIV-AIDs, Malaria, and Pneumonia.

Further, between 2000 and 2015, Pneumonia attracted 03% or $US03 billion of infectious disease R and D, according to an analysis by the Research Investments in Global Health study, produced by Dr Head and his colleagues at the University of Southampton, Harvard and London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. These low levels of spending are in stark contrast to Pneumonia’s infectious disease burden, more than 25% of all infectious disease deaths, according to the GBD.

Progress in reducing Pneumonia deaths has not kept pace with other leading infectious diseases. Between 1990 and 2017, Pneumonia deaths fell by 25%, compared to 88% for Tetanus, 86% for Measles, 47% for HIV:AIDS, since the peak of the epidemic in 2003, 46% for Whooping Cough, 41% for Typhoid, 39% for Diarrhoea and 38% for Meningitis. Slow progress in reducing Pneumonia deaths will prohibit many countries from achieving the Sustainable Development Goals for child survival, communicable diseases and access to vaccines and medicines.

Two-thirds of Pneumonia-related deaths occur in a diverse group of 20 low, middle, and high income countries, including, India, Nigeria, China, Japan and the USA. Despite progress in reducing child Pneumonia deaths in all of these countries, many still have a long way to go to end preventable child deaths by 2030. Others are facing sharply rising Pneumonia deaths among the elderly and some are challenged with double burdens of Pneumonia deaths among both children and the elderly.

GBD data shows that, unlike many infectious diseases, Pneumonia deaths follow a U-shaped curve across the life-cycle with 75% of the 02.6 million deaths concentrated among the very young, 809.000 deaths and the very old, 01.13 million deaths.

The Report recommends several course correction strategies. First and foremost, high-burden countries should introduce Pneumonia control strategies to fully protect their most vulnerable populations with the Pneumonia-fighting vaccines, Hib, PCV, Measles and RSV when available and ensure access to diagnostics, pulse oximetry and treatments, recommended antibiotics, oxygen, and therapeutic foods. Specific strategies to reduce the major risk factors for Pneumonia death among children, child wasting, air pollution, pre-term birth and adults, smoking and alcohol use, should, also, be implemented.

The Report acknowledges that some countries will continue to require international development assistance to achieve Pneumonia control and that increases in the historically low levels of development assistance allocated to pneumonia will be required.

Global actors should ensure that development assistance helps countries in their efforts to better align their domestic health spending with national disease burdens. They should, also, lead the development and uptake of breakthrough Pneumonia-fighting technologies, especially, those than can reduce the incidence of Pneumonia and ensure that people, who get sick, make a full recovery.

This includes supporting promising new tools, including, the emerging RSV vaccines and a rapid diagnostic test for Pneumonia, that would remove a major obstacle to effective Pneumonia treatment, rational antibiotic use and continued antibiotic effectiveness.

Read the Report:::ω.

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Hunger and Obesity in Latin America and the Caribbean Are Compounded by Inequality: UN Report




|| November 07: 2018 || ά. For the third consecutive year, the number of those chronically hungry has increased in Latin America and the Caribbean, while 250 million, 60 percent of the regional population, are obese or overweight, representing the biggest  threat to nutritional health, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation:FAO on Wednesday. Speaking at the launch of the Panorama of Food and Nutrition Security 2018 Report in Santiago, Chile, FAO’s Regional Representative, Mr Julio Berdegue said that it was an appalling threat to health overall, affecting women and indigenous groups the most.

The Panorama, published annually by FAO, the Pan American Health Organisation:PAHO, the United Nations Children’s Fund:UNICEF and the World Food Programme:WFP, explores strategies to halt the health threats posed by hunger and malnutrition in Latin America and the Caribbean. According to the Report, hunger, malnutrition, lack of micro-nutrients and obesity largely affect lower income families, women, indigenous communities, Afro-descendants and rural families.

Principle causes of malnutrition amongst the most vulnerable, can be traced back to changes the food systems have experienced in the region, from production to consumption. With a greater strain on the demand for nutrient-rich food like milk and meats, many resort to less costly options, which are, often, higher in fat, sugar and salt.

Ms Maria Cristina Perceval, who serves as the Regional Director of UNICEF in the region, said that stunting correlates closely to inequality and poverty levels and being chronically overweight was, also, increasingly affecting the poorest children. She highlighted the fact that lower income families have unequal access to healthy diets.

Obesity has become the greatest threat to Latin America and the Caribbean, when it comes to nutritional health conditions. Nearly one in four adults are obese and more than seven percent of children below the age of five are overweight, higher than the global average of 05.6 percent.

‘’To address the exacerbation of hunger and obesity, a multi-spectoral approach is needed.” Ms Carissa Etienne, Director of PAHO:WHO, said. She said that the solution required addressing social factors just, as well as, water quality and access to health services.

In response to growing malnutrition, partner authors on the Report call on countries to implement public policies, that combat inequality while promoting health and sustainable food systems. :::ω.

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Finland Invites Nominations for the International Gender Equality Prize 2019: Deadline for Nominations December 31: 2018




|| October 28: 2018 || ά. The call for proposals for the Finnish Government’s International Gender Equality Prize 2019 is now open to the public. The Prize, which will be awarded for the second time in autumn 2019, can go to a person or organisation working to promote gender equality in an internationally significant way. The award sum for the next prize has been increased to Eur300,000. Anyone can nominate a candidate on the Prize website until December 31, 2018.

“Gender equality is a core value of Finnish society. Finland would be a very different country, if, women and girls had not participated in creating the welfare society. With this Prize, we aim to advance equality on the international stage by raising discussion about equality and highlighting important related themes, such as, violence against women.” says Finland’s Prime Minister Mr Juha Sipilä. “I hope, we will receive a lot of good proposals for the next prize recipient from around the world.”

The Prize, established in 2017 in honour of the 100th anniversary of Finland’s independence, was first awarded to the Federal Chancellor of Germany Ms Angela Merkel, whose life’s work has made her one of the world’s most influential people and an example to many women and girls.

The Prize includes a sum of Eur300,000, which is intended not for the recipients themselves but is rather directed to a cause, that advances gender equality. Chancellor Merkel granted her prize money, Eur150,000 in 2017 to an NGO working to promote the rights of women and children in Niger. The Organisation, SOS Femmes et Enfants Victimes de Violence Familiale, is using the prize money to build a residential shelter for victims of domestic violence in the Nigerien capital of Niamey.

The Government of Finland awards the Prize based on the suggestion of an international jury. The members of the jury for 2019 are Mr Pekka Haavisto, Chair, Member of Parliament, Ms Eva Biaudet, President of the National Council of Women of Finland, Ms Katja Iversen, President and CEO of Women Deliver, Ms Anneli Jätteenmäki, Member of the European Parliament and first female Prime Minister of Finland and Mr Dean Peacock, Co-founder and Co-Executive Director of South African NGO Sonke Gender Justice.

The International Gender Equality Prize is awarded once every two years in co-operation with the City of Tampere. Anyone can nominate a candidate on the Prize website until December 31, 2018. The nomination form must be completed in English.

Inquiries: Riikka Pakarinen: Special Adviser: EU Affairs: Tele: +358 40 580 0833: Jorma Korhonen: Senior Adviser for International Affairs: Tele: +358 295 160 410: Irina Haltsonen: Communications Specialist: Tele: +358 50 597 3744:::ω.

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Vihrea Suomi: Finland Forges Ahead On the Green and Sustainable Path: Coal Ban in 2029: More Bio-Fuels for Transport and Bio-Fuel Oil for Heating and Machinery
















|| October 23: 2018 || ά. The Finnish Government proposes that coal-fired power and heating generation be banned from May 01, 2029. It submitted the coal ban bill to Parliament on October 18. The Government, also, proposes measures to promote the use of transport bio-fuels and bio-fuel oil for heating and machinery. “The Government has today submitted to Parliament bills, that all have the same goal: more determined and accelerated action for climate change mitigation. We want to be among the first countries to phase out coal, because it would be an important climate step for Finland and we were one of the co-founders of the international Powering Past Coal Alliance.” says Mr Kimmo Tiilikainen, Finland’s Minister of the Environment, Energy and Housing.

The coal ban is part of Finland’s National Energy and Climate Strategy to 2030. This far-reaching energy policy aims to phase out the use of fossil fuels in energy generation and move towards an emission-free energy system. Coal would be the first fossil energy source to be banned in energy production. The Finnish Government aims to achieve a low-carbon energy system, promote the use of renewable energy sources and ensure a healthy living environment. The coal ban would cut carbon dioxide emissions in Finland by approximately one million tons a year. It would, also, reduce other emissions, such as, sulphur dioxide and heavy metal.

The aim of the relatively long transition period is to ensure the reconciliation of different kinds of public and private interests. Coal-fired power generation is already declining and by the time of the 2029 ban, it would be down to 03.4-04.3 TWh. The ban would have cost implications, chiefly, in the district heating networks in Vaasa and Helsinki, where measures to replace coal would have to start earlier than currently planned. The estimate is that other coal-fired power plants in Finland would be replaced before 2030. Multi-fuel power plants would replace coal with other fuels.

The costs of premature decommissioning of existing equipment would be around EUR 38 million and the additional costs of replacement investments would be around EUR 14-23 million. Under the Finnish Constitution, the state will not be liable for increased costs associated with the coal ban but the Constitutional Law Committee of Parliament will probably reassess the matter.

Today, the Government, also, submitted its proposals on fuel distribution obligations. The obligation to distribute bio-fuels would be tightened gradually in the 2020s. The obligation to distribute transport bio-fuels would be increased as of 2021, from 18% to 30% by 2029. Similarly, the obligation to distribute advanced bio-fuels would be tightened from 2021 onwards, reaching 10 percentage points by 2030.

The proposed distribution obligations could reduce emissions by 50% by 2030, when combined with other targets in the National Energy and Climate Strategy, i.e, 250,000 electric cars, 50,000 gas cars and better energy efficiency.

Distributors of light fuel oil would be assigned a new obligation to replace some of the light fuel oil used in heating, machinery and stationary engines with bio-fuel oil as of 2021. This obligation would be increased gradually from 03% in 2021 to 10% in 2028.

The obligations regarding bio-fuels and bio-fuel oil are part of the implementation of the National Energy and Climate Strategy and the Medium-term Climate Change Policy Plan to 2030. Their aim is to reduce emissions, increase the use of renewable energy sources and decrease the use of imported oil.

Inquiries: Vilhartti Hanhilahti: Special Adviser to the Minister of the Environment, Energy and Housing: Tele: +358 40 836 4823

Anja Liukko: Senior Legal Advisor: Ministry of Employment and the Economy: Tele: tel. +358 29 506 2078:::ω.

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The World Conference on Primary Health Care 2018 in Astana Kazakhstan: October 25-26


















|| October 23: 2018 || ά. The World Health Organisation, UNICEF and the Government of Kazakhstan will co-host the World Conference on Primary Health Care 2018 on October 25-26 at the Palace of Independence in Astana, Kazakhstan. The Conference will mark the 40th anniversary of the historic 1978 Alma-Ata Declaration on primary health care and will unite world leaders to affirm that strong primary health care is essential to achieve universal health coverage.

The Global Conference on Primary Health Care will help chart a course to ensure that everyone, everywhere can access quality, affordable primary health care in their community. Country representatives will sign and ratify a bold declaration to increase investments in primary health care to advance universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals. Attendees will include heads of states, ministers of health, finance, education and social welfare; health workers and patients, youth delegates and leaders representing global health institutions, civil society, academia, philanthropy, media and the private sector.

Investing in primary health care is one of the most effective, cost-effective and equitable strategies to improve health outcomes and advance universal health coverage. On every continent and at every income level, countries are pursuing some of their most ambitious health reforms to date to expand access to health care and transform health systems.

The conference will feature a two-day programme of six high-level plenaries, 20 parallel sessions and partner-led side-events and exhibits. Ministers of Health and young people are expected to attend events throughout the conference, including, a ministerial meeting to plan for the first High-Level Meeting on Universal Health Coverage in 2019. :::ω.

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Securing Access to Optimal Cancer Care Through Innovation Integration and Sustainability: The European Society for Medical Oncology Congress 2018 Presents the Latest Research in the Fields of Oncology


















|| October 21: 2018 || ά. Securing access to optimal cancer care for all patients can only be achieved through integrated, sustainable translation of today’s scientific advances into tomorrow’s treatments, reinforced by a clear understanding of the magnitude of clinical effects and accurate identification of patients most likely to benefit. At the opening press conference of the European Society for Medical Oncology:ESMO Congress 2018, the Scientific Chair, Professor Solange Peters stressed the importance of ensuring that the innovations reported at the meeting reach the right patients at the right time.

“ESMO 2018 is, first and foremost, about innovation and compelling clinical trial data will be presented about potential new treatments for breast, prostate, ovarian and other cancers. But the conference is, also, about integration and sustainability and we are encouraging a more integrated approach to cancer care, as well as, supporting essential policy-informing discussions about affordable, sustainable models of care.” said Professor Solange Peters. Over the next few days, data will be presented from over 2,000 submitted abstracts, representing nearly 116,000 patients, who have taken part in clinical trials.

Amongst studies focused on access to care will be important research demonstrating large variations between countries in time for reimbursement decisions on new cancer drugs. This shows that some European countries take more than twice as long as others to reach health technology assessment:HTA decisions to reimburse new cancer drugs following their approval by the European Medicines Agency:EMA. The average decision time is longer than one year in some countries.

“Without timely reimbursement decisions, based on appropriate evaluation of a new medicine’s benefits and cost-effectiveness, patients, may, miss out on potentially life-changing cancer medicines.” explained the Study Co-author Dr Kerstin Vokinger, Senior Research Scientist at the University Hospital of Zurich, Switzerland and an Affiliated Researcher at Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA.

The Study found that health authorities, generally, made decisions much more quickly for drugs ranked as being of ‘highest benefit’ on the ESMO Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale:ESMO-MCBS, which uses a rational, structured and consistent approach to grade the magnitude of clinical benefit that can be expected from anti-cancer treatments. Together with the recently published ESMO Scale for Clinical Actionability of molecular Targets:ESCAT, which simplifies and standardises choices for targeted cancer treatment, ESMO-MCBS is helping to ensure that treatment decisions are based on the highest standards of evidence.

“ESMO is a driver of change affecting the entire field of oncology. ESMO-MCBS and ESCAT are grounding treatment choices in the best available evidence, helping to enhance decision making for both clinicians and healthcare providers, and making a major contribution to securing access to optimal cancer care for all patients, wherever they live.” concluded ESMO President Mr Josep Taberno.

About the European Society for Medical Oncology:ESMO: ESMO is the leading professional organisation for medical oncology. With over 19,000 members representing oncology professionals from over 150 countries worldwide, ESMO is the society of reference for oncology education and information. ESMO is committed to offer the best care to people with cancer, through fostering integrated cancer care, supporting oncologists in their professional development, and advocating for sustainable cancer care worldwide..:::ω.

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The World in a Kafkaesque Darkness: Will the World Keep on Heading Towards That Monstrosity and Accept This Lawlessness of a Jungle Without Making a Stand Against It



|| October 18: 2018 || ά. ‘’The case of Saudi dissident journalist Jamal Khashoggi is just the latest example of a new and very worrying practice of States abducting individuals beyond their own borders.’’ said the Chair of the UN Working Group on Enforced Disappearances, addressing the UN General Assembly on Thursday. In its annual Report, presented to the UN Human Rights Council at the end of September, the Working Group on Enforced Disappearances highlighted the practice, which the Chair, Mr Bernard Duhaime termed as that, which ‘occurs with or without the acquiescence of the host state and, while, in most cases, the victims reappear in detention after a short period, in other cases they remain disappeared as in the recent shocking case of Saudi journalist Jamal Khashoggi’.

Mr Duhaime reiterated a statement released on October 09, which called for an independent international investigation into what happened and the identification and prosecution of the perpetrators. He added that the Working Group had previously expressed its concerns over ‘short-term disappearances’, increasingly used in recent years, especially, in the context of anti-terrorism operations. Mr Duhaime said that it was, often, done to extract evidence and finalise the investigation outside the protection of the law and, often, resorting to coercion, if, not torture.

This year’s report expresses serious concern that the number of enforced disappearances continues to be unacceptably high worldwide, with 820 new cases reported between May 2017 and May this year and called for more assistance to be made available to family members and members of civil society to enable them to report cases to the Working Group and, more importantly, to keep working on enforced disappearance issues.

“Whether it is used to repress political dissent, combat organised crime or, allegedly, fight terrorism, when resorting to enforced disappearance, States are actually perpetrating a crime and an offence to human dignity.” Mr Duhaime told the Assembly, urging all Member States to ratify, without delay, the International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance.

The Working Group was set up in 1980, to help families find out what happened to their relatives. It serves as a channel of communication between family members of victims of enforced disappearance and other sources reporting cases of disappearances, and the Governments concerned..:::ω.

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There Can Not Be Health and Well Being So Long Poverty Keeps Ravaging the World: No Education Keeps Devastating Humanity: Malnutrition and Hunger Keeps Crippling Humanity: Hundreds of Millions of Humans are Left to Rot Away in Shanty Towns and Homelessness Keeps on Destroying Lives: Unemployment Keeps Strangling Lives: All the World’s Health Organisations Can Make Grand Declarations But Without States and Governments Investing in Eradicating These Most-Low-Evils and High-Cruelties These Will Remain Hollow Words: Global Health Organisations Commit to New Ways of Working Together for Greater Impact




|| October 16: 2018 || ά. As The Humanion presents this report about this highly admirable initiative of these world health agencies, we would like to put to them this question: how can there be any health in these shanty towns? How can the question of health arise, where people do not, even, have access to proper sanitation? How can anyone dare talk about health, when people have no access to the bare, basic food and drink and they are scavenging for food in the dustbins and landfill sites and human beings are forced to eat rotten meats and poultry? Who dares to speak about health, when the world’s vast number of human beings are destined to rot away in utter and sheer poverty? Who dares to speak about health and well-being, when the vast number of human beings are born and pay the price and suffer without ever having to set foot at a school! Who dares to mention health, when, even, in countries like the United Kingdom and similar rich economies, vast multitude of human beings are living in poverty and people are dying on the streets from homelessness and rough sleeping! Who dares mentioning health, when the largest chunk of the world’s population has  no access to healthcare!

Health Agencies have the most impossible task: the world bodies, states and governments have grand declarations and they set these agencies to go and do: but going and doing requires money, requires resources: words the world has much, far too much: actions, investments and much, much, much of it, must be had! Where are the resources? Where are the investments? Why on earth all the countries, states and governments, including, the richest of the economies not investing in these? This does not mean that The Humanion does not appreciate the impossible work and initiatives these agencies are seeking to do with negligible budgets against the enormity of the desperate needs. They can not do it: they can not make political and economic decisions: political leaderships of the world’s states and governments must do that. Eradicate poverty, eradicate hunger, eradicate shanty towns, eradicate homelessness, ensure clean and pure drinking water, ensure sanitation and invest to make education a Universal Human Right: invest: No, they will give the world bombastic declarations, high statements and this and the other, which is no use to the children being born and suffering and dying like they are not humans in all the countless shanty towns in the world: all the millions dying of hunger have no use of these declarations! Investment and an enormous amount of investment is required.

Added to this, now we have these Sustainable Development Goals and all these agencies have spent some years getting them off the heart and they keep on repeating these as, if, by just repeating these they can make themselves believe that these will come into reality by some magic! There Can Not Be Health and Well Being So Long Poverty Keeps Ravaging the World: No Education Keeps Devastating Humanity: Malnutrition and Hunger Kee[ Crippling Humanity: Hundreds of Millions of Humans are Left to Rot Away in Shanty Towns and Homelessness Keeps on Destroying Lives: Unemployment Keeps Strangling Lives: All the World’s Health Organisations Can Make Grand Declarations But Without States and Governments Investing in Eradicating These Most-Low-Evils and High-Cruelties These Will Remain Hollow Words: Global Health Organisations Commit to New Ways of Working Together for Greater Impact. So long These Most Low-Evils and High-Cruelties Remain in Existence No One Should Dare Speak About Sustainability, Let Alone, Mentioning Development! Invest and Invest and Invest: There is nothing sustainable about millions and millions of humans are going into the open because they have no access to a safe toilet! Let alone toilets: millions and millions of humans have no access to clean and safe water! What is sustainable about this and where is the development in it! It is time to stand up and scream at this devastation, destruction and annihilation of humanity by the brutal economics and rich-dictated and directed politics! It is time to tell these leaderships that  they can no longer carry this caricature. It is time to act and invest now. They can not keep on letting a large chunk of the entire human race waste away and perish! This can not be sustained! This is brutal, barbaric and cruel! This can not go on.

Now that we have set out the raw and devastating introduction, here is the news of this new effort: Eleven heads of the world’s leading health and development organisations today signed a landmark commitment to find new ways of working together to accelerate progress towards achieving the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals. See, the ‘landmark commitment’: this does not add a single cent in their budgets! Absolutely not! And, then follows the grand Sustainable Development Goals: Where is the investment to bring that development, that is sustainable? Where are the investments! How many hundreds of trillions of dollars must be made available to bring about half of these goals into reality? These investments have not been made but we have the grand declarations!

Co-ordinated by the World Health Organisation, the initiative unites the work of 11 organisations, with others set to join in the next phase. And, that, too, will not add another cent into their budgets! They all will run far low than what they need and the lone World Health Organisations will, issue, emergency appeal because it keeps on falling short on its funds and no one would blink and offer much: the richest countries will look away and put whatever they can in their ears!

The commitment follows a request from Chancellor Angela Merkel of Germany, President Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo of Ghana, and Prime Minister Erna Solberg of Norway, with support from United Nations Secretary-General Antonio Guterres, to develop a global action plan to define how global actors can better collaborate to accelerate progress towards the health-related targets of the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda.

“Healthy people are essential for sustainable development, to ending poverty, promoting peaceful and inclusive societies and protecting the environment. However, despite great strides made against many of the leading causes of death and disease, we must redouble our efforts or we will not reach several of the health-related targets.” the organisations announced today at the World Health Summit in Berlin.

“The Global Action Plan represents an historic commitment to new ways of working together to accelerate progress towards meeting the 2030 goals. We are committed to redefine how our organizations work together to deliver more effective and efficient support to countries and to achieve better health and well-being for all people.”

The group has agreed to develop new ways of working together to maximise resources and measure progress in a more transparent and engaging way. The first phase of the plan’s development is organized under three strategic approaches: align, accelerate and account.

Align: The organisations have committed to co-ordinate programmatic, financing and operational processes to increase collective efficiency and impact on a number of shared priorities, such as, gender equality and reproductive, maternal, new-born, child and adolescent health.

Accelerate: They have agreed to develop common approaches and co-ordinate action in areas of work, that have the potential to increase the pace of progress in global health. The initial set of seven ‘accelerators’ include community and civil society engagement, research and development, data and sustainable financing. 

Account: To improve transparency and accountability to countries and development partners, the health organisations are breaking new ground by setting common milestones for nearly 50 health-related targets across 14 Sustainable Development Goals. These milestones will provide a critical checkpoint and common reference to determine where the world stands in 2023 and whether it is on track to reach the 2030 goals.

The organisations, that have, already, signed up to the Global Action Plan for Healthy Lives and Well-being for All are: Gavi the Vaccine Alliance, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, the Global Financing Facility, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNFPA, UNICEF, Unitaid, UN Women, the World Bank and WHO. The World Food Programme has committed to join the plan in the coming months.

The final plan will be delivered in September 2019 at the United Nations General Assembly.

And we end this piece with the same point: end the most-low evils and high cruelties and to do so there must be investment and a great deal of it: without it all we have are hollow words. There can not be any development without investment: there can not be any sustainability, when the very humanity is perishing away in millions! What can we sustain when we can not, even, stop millions of new-borns dying needlessly every year! In a money based system investment is the life-blood to bring about development.::ω.

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Burundi Attempting to Silence UN Body Monitoring Grave Human Rights Situation in the Country




|| October 15: 2018 || ά. Independent expert human rights mechanisms at the UN are crucial to addressing serious human rights violations and ensuring accountability for those violations. States must protect their right to share their findings. In an unprecedented move, the Burundian Government is attempting to block the Commission of Inquiry:CI on Burundi from briefing the General Assembly on its findings, despite its mandate to do so. A vote is scheduled to take place in the Third Committee of the General Assembly on the morning of Tuesday, October 16 on whether the CI will be allowed to present its report to the Committee. 12 NGOs, including, International Service for Human Rights:ISHR, have signed a joint letter urging States to support the right of the CI to present its report.

‘’This is the first time a mandate established by the Human Rights Council is being attacked in this way and represents a very dangerous precedent,’’ said ISHR New York Director and Legal Counsel, Ms Madeleine Sinclair. ‘’This was made clear, when Somalia immediately echoed Burundi and asked for the Independent Expert on the situation of human rights in Somalia’s presentation to the Third Committee, also, be blocked.’’ Burundi’s move is simply the latest in a series of attempts to avoid accountability by thwarting the CI, including, personal attacks against members of the CI, declaring them personae non gratae and threatening them with prosecution, including, for ‘defamation’ and for ‘destabilising’ the country.

The Human Rights Council extended the mandate of the CI just last month in recognition of the severity of the human rights situation in the country. This move by Burundi is, also, the latest in a series of moves to reverse Human Rights Council decisions. In 2013, the African Group successfully overturned a decision of the Human Rights Council to create a UN focal point on reprisals. In 2016, the African Group unsuccessfully challenged the appointment of the Independent Expert on protection against violence and discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.

The NGO letter urges governments to ensure that the CI, a body they created, can do its crucial work and report on it during the Third Committee and demonstrate their respect for the integrity of the Human Rights Council.

The CI is the only independent investigating mechanism, that is mandated to publicly report on the serious human rights violations and abuses committed in the country, including, killings, beatings, sexual violence, arbitrary imprisonment and intimidation.

The CI was established by the Human Rights Council in September 2016. Its mandate was renewed in October 2017 and renewed again in October 2018. The CI is mandated, inter alia, to conduct a thorough investigation into human rights violations and abuses in Burundi since April 2015, including, on their extent and whether they, may, constitute international crimes.

The resolution creating the CI and the two subsequent resolutions renewing it, include an explicit mandate to present its report to the General Assembly. Despite this, on October 10, the African Group won a vote in the Third Committee of the General Assembly allowing the Committee to seek a legal opinion from the UN Office of Legal Affairs, asking to clarify the legal basis for including the CI on the Third Committee list of mandate holders presenting reports and participating in a related dialogue.

he legal advice clarified that there is a legal basis for the Third Committee to hold an interactive dialogue with the CI, which is supported by established practice. In addition, programme budget implications allowing CI members and staff to travel to New York to present the CI’s findings to the General Assembly, were approved in 2017 after the adoption of HRC resolution 36:19.::ω.

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Successful Climate Policy Requires Unanimity From the Parties



|| October 09: 2018: Juha Sipilä: Finland’s Prime Minister Writing || ά. The Special Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:IPCC published today has provoked well-deserved discussion on the mitigation of climate change. The report emphasises the need to limit global warming to 01.5°C instead of the previous target of 02°C. A 01.5°C increase in temperature would already lead to serious problems and require measures to adapt to the consequences. If, the global temperature were to increase by 02°C, the Report finds that the effects would be significantly more severe and difficult to manage.

For example, an increase of 02°C would leave twice the number of people without sufficient water than a 01.5°C increase. The difference would be dramatic. The fight against climate change has been one of the main objectives of the Government’s policy. When leading the discussion on the formation of a new government, I set commitment to the Paris Agreement as a requirement for our coalition partners. With this in mind, the Government has decided to phase out coal by 2029, increase its renewable energy targets to more than 50 per cent and work to promote the use of electric transport. The overarching goal of the policy is to achieve carbon neutrality by 2045.

However, the measures taken thus far are not nearly enough. The message of the new Report is clear. We must work harder and faster to mitigate climate change. The need to decrease emissions opens up enormous potential markets for new technological solutions. Finland has the opportunity to become a superpower in combatting climate change.

At the same time, we must acknowledge that taking the measures needed to reduce emissions will not be easy for Finland. For politicians, decision-making requires courage, consensus and a long-term perspective. The long-term decision-making needed to tackle climate change requires dialogue across government and opposition borders. This has, also, been Finland’s strategy, when making decisions on foreign and security policy.

In November, I plan to invite all Finnish parliamentary parties to a round-table discussion. The Finnish Climate Panel has promised to lead the discussion. The goal is to achieve as broad a parliamentary consensus as possible on Finland’s climate policy. In this process, the parties would start from a clean slate, discussing common measures and objectives to commit to in order to ensure sufficiently ambitious climate policy and guarantee its continuity beyond government terms.

During this parliamentary term, Finland has, also, been a very active promoter of ambitious climate policy on the international stage. Additionally, we have been working at the European Union level to establish more stringent emission reduction targets. These efforts should definitely continue. I am currently touring around Europe and meeting with all of my EU colleagues. At the meetings, I have been laying the groundwork for Finland’s EU Presidency, term beginning next summer. I have, also, addressed climate change and emphasised that the current measures are not enough. Climate change must feature prominently in Finland’s programme for its EU Presidency. Europe must take on an international role as a climate leader.:::ω.

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The Time for Talk Argue and Waste Time Is No Longer an Option: Act Faster Better Quicker and Together Is an Existential Imperative: Unprecedented Changes Needed to Limit Global Warming to 01.5°




































|| October 08: 2018 || ά. Limiting global warming to 01.5°C will require ‘far-reaching and unprecedented changes’ to human behaviour, according to a United Nations scientific panel,  launching a Special Report on Monday, that finds some of the actions needed are already under way but must be dramatically increased. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change:IPCC, issued the Report from Incheon, Republic of Korea, where for the past week, hundreds of scientists and government representatives have been poring over thousands of inputs to paint a picture of what could happen to the planet and its population with global warming of 01.5°C or 02.7 degrees Fahrenheit. 

“One of the key messages, that comes out very strongly from this report is that we are already seeing the consequences of 01°C of global warming through more extreme weather, rising sea levels and diminishing Arctic sea ice, among other changes.” said Panmao Zhai, Co-Chair of one of the IPCC Working Groups. The landmark Paris Agreement adopted in December 2015 by 195 nations at the 21st Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change:UNFCCC, included the aim of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate  change by ‘holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 02°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 01.5°C above pre-industrial levels.” 

Professor Petteri Taalas, Secretary-General of the World Meteorological Organisation:WMO, said on Monday in Geneva that there was ‘extreme urgency’ needed on the part of Paris Agreement signatories and ‘so far the progress hasn't been good enough’ to keep temperature rises below, even, 02°. "Climate change is already visible and it is having an impact on human beings and ecosystems all around the world. With 02° we will have ice-free summer in the Antarctic every year but with 01.5° we would see that, only every 100 years." he said, giving one example of how the world's weather dramatically changes per half-degree. 

“There will be 420 million people less suffering because of climate change, if, we would be able to limit the warming to 01.5°C level and we have certain areas in the world, which are extremely sensitive.” Professor Taalas said. “Small island states, the Mediterranean region and, also, Sub-saharan Africa is already suffering and will suffer more in the future.”

It is still possible to limit global warming to 01.5°C, he said. “But we should change many things how we run our everyday business today”. Also in Geneva, a UN rights expert warned that failing to do more to address climate change risked locking in decades of grave violations. 

“Climate change is having and will have devastating effects on a wide range of human rights, including, rights to life, health, food, housing and water, as well as, the right to a healthy environment.” said Mr David Boyd, Special Rapporteur on human rights and the environment. 

“The world is already witnessing the impacts of climate change from hurricanes in America, heat waves in Europe, droughts in Africa to floods in Asia.” The Report highlights a number of climate change impacts, that could be avoided by limiting global warming to 01.5°C compared to 02°C, or more. For instance, by 2,100, global sea level rise would be 10cm lower with global warming of 01.5°C compared with 02°C. 

Moreover, coral reefs, already, threatened, would decline by 70-90 percent with global warming of 01.5°C, whereas, virtually, all  would be lost with 02°C, according to the Report. “Every extra bit of warming matters, especially, since warming of 01.5°C or higher, increases the risk associated with long-lasting or irreversible changes, such as, the loss of some ecosystems.” said Mr Hans-Otto Pörtner, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group II. 

“Limiting warming to 01.5°C is possible within the laws of chemistry and physics but doing so would require unprecedented change.,” said Mr Jim Skea, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group III. With that in mind, the Report calls for huge changes in land, energy, industry, buildings and transportation use and across cities everywhere. Global net emissions of carbon dioxide would need to fall by 45 per cent from 2010 levels by 2030 and reach ‘net zero’ around 2050. 

Allowing the global temperature to temporarily exceed or ‘overshoot’ 01.5ºC would mean a greater reliance on techniques, that remove CO2 from the air to return global temperatures to below 01.5°C by 2,100. 

But the Report warns that the effectiveness of such techniques are unproven at large scale and some, may, carry significant risks for sustainable development. “Limiting global warming to 01.5°C compared with 02°C would reduce challenging impacts on ecosystems, human health and well-being, making it easier to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals:SDGs,” said Ms Priyardarshi Shukla, Co-Chair of IPCC Working Group III, referring to the 17 Goals adopted by UN Member States three years ago to protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030. 

The new Report will feed into a process, called, the ‘Talanoa Dialogue,’ in which parties to the Paris accord will take stock of what has been accomplished over the past three years. The dialogue will be a part of the next UNFCCC Conference of States parties, known by the shorthand COP 24, which will  meet in Katowice, Poland, this December.

Read the Report:::ω.

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Indonesia Earthquake and Tsunami: The World Was Supposed to Be Prepared for the Early Warning Systems to Work and It Appears They Did Not: Will the World Take Heed




|| September 30: 2018 || ά. The magnitude 07.4 RS earthquake, which hit the Indonesian territory of Palu and Donggala, Central Sulawesi, on Friday, September 28  has already claimed close to 400 fatalities, with victim numbers expected to rise. The latest dreaded predictions are that fatalities, may, well, exceed thousands. The epicentre of the earthquake was 10 km deep and it struck some 27 km east of the coast from Donggala, Central Sulawesi.

Subsequently, a tsunami struck the west coast of Sulawesi, hitting settlements and buildings along Talise beach in Palu City and the beach in Donggala. Power supplies and telecommunications have been crippled and aftershocks are continuing. "The disaster has affected a lot of people in Sulawesi and, even though the real scale and nature of the impact of this earthquake and tsunami will unfold over the next few days for the outside world, the people there are already reeling with pain, grief and deep sense of loss.

We are co-ordinating and getting as much information as possible to prepare for emergency response deployment, if, required by the Government of Indonesia.” says Mr Shashwat Saraf, Action Against Hunger’s Asia Regional Operations Director.

The Indonesian President immediately mobilised the National Disaster Management Agency:BNPB, which has already arrived in the disaster areas via helicopters. Indonesian Armed Forces:TNI are deploying 700 troops to the scene and the country's National Search and Rescue Agency:Basarnas have deployed 30 personnel along with emergency equipment, using Hercules aircraft. 

Urgent humanitarian needs include evacuation and management of injuries, medical and health services, including, referral services, food, clean water, cooking items, blankets and emergency shelter. :::ω.

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